A philosophical archive for the constructive study of substance dualism: www.newdualism.org.

Online NDE Scientific Papers


  1. H. Abramovitch, An Israeli account of a near-death experience: A case study of cultural dissonance, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 175-184.
    The text of an Israeli near-death experience (NDE) is presented in translation from the Hebrew. This account is contrasted with the traditional Hebrew sources on NDEs or their equivalents, which formed part of the NDEr's native subculture. In the present case, the lack of congruence between the reported NDE and the expected cultural form led to intense confusion described by the NDEr. Further study is needed of folk traditions of NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  2. C. Agrillo, Near-death experience: Out-of-body and out-of-brain?, Review Of General Psychology, 15 (2011), pp. 1-10.
    During the last decades, several clinical cases have been reported where patients described profound subjective experiences when near-death, a phenomenon called ``near-death experience'' (NDE). Recurring features in the accounts involving bright lights and tunnels have sometimes been interpreted as evidence of a new life after death; however the origin of such experiences is largely unknown, and both biological and psychological interpretations have been suggested. The study of NDEs represents one of the most important topics of cognitive neuroscience. In the present paper the current state of knowledge has been reviewed, with particular regard to the main features of NDE, scientific explanations and the theoretical debate surrounding this phenomenon., (Web, pdf).

  3. E. Alexander, Things I Learned from my Near-Death Experience, (2012), pp. 1-2.

  4. J. B. Alexander, The Omega Project: Near-death experiences, UFO encounters, and mind at large, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 247-250.
    (Web, pdf).

  5. C. S. Alvarado, Flight of mind: A psychological study of the out-of-body experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 61-66.
    (Web, pdf).

  6. T. A. Angerpointner, Book Review: Children of the New Millennium: Children' Near-Death Experiences and the Evolution of Humankind, by P.M.H. Atwater. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 1999, 288 pp, 14.00 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 247-255.
    (Web, pdf).

  7. D. Arcangel, Book Review: The Final Entrance: Journeys Beyond Life, by Susan L. Schoenbeck. Madison, WI: Prairie Oak Press, 1997, 164 pp., 17.95, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 259-263.
    (Web, pdf).

  8. J. K. Arnette, On the mind/body problem: The theory of essence, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 5-18.
    The classical mind/body problem can be approached empirically, using instances of the near-death experience (NDE) as experimental data. The monistic viewpoint, that the mind is the functioning of the brain, finds little support in the NDE data, while dualism, mind and body as separate entities, is consistent with NDE research to date. Comparison ofthe details of the NDE with predictions from theoretical cosmology shows strong similarities between the two and further strengthens the case for dualism. A theory of human nature is proposed that incorporates these similarities., (Web, pdf).

  9. J. K. Arnette, The Theory of Essence. III: Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Aspects of Interactionism, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 73-101.
    This article continues the construction of a dualistic interactionist theory of the near-death experience (NDE), the theory of essence, which was begun in two previous articles (Arnette, 1992, 1995). The present work represents an extension of the theory to the microscopic level of analysis, in order to specify in detail the mechanism of essence-brain interaction and to address some general and specific objections to interactionism and the theory of essence. In the theory construction process, a second issue is addressed: that of the apparent multiplicity of causes of NDEs or NDE-like experiences. I show that this multiplicity is simply a manifestation of the mode of essence-brain interaction and is accurately predicted by the theory., (Web, pdf).

  10. P. M. H. Atwater, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 215-218.
    (Web, pdf).

  11. P. M. H. Atwater and H. A. Widdison, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 271-285.
    (Web, pdf).

  12. L. Audain, Gender and Trauma in the Near-Death Experience: An Epidemiological and Theoretical Analysis, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 35-49.
    In this article, I explore the nature of the ``fear-death experience''(FDE) by way of an epidemiological analysis, and discuss the FDE as one of several causal theories of the near-death experience (NDE). I then pursue two hypotheses: (1) if the FDE model is correct, one would expect to find that a number of NDEs are preceded by traumatic experiences; and (2) if the FDE model is correct, one would expect to find that more NDEs are experienced by males than females. Chi-squared analyses on data from more than 500 NDE cases revealed that the first hypothesis cannot be rejected, while the second hypothesis can be rejected. I discuss the theoretical implications of these findings., (Web, pdf).

  13. L. Audain, Near-Death Experiences and the Theory of the Extraneuronal Hyperspace, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 103-115.
    It is possible and desirable to supplement the traditional neurological and metaphysical explanatory models of the near-death experience (NDE) with yet a third type of explanatory model that links the neurological and the metaphysical. I set forth the rudiments of this model, the Theory of the Extraneuronal Hyperspace, with six propositions. I then use this theory to explain three of the pressing issues within NDE scholarship: the veridicality, precognition and ``fear-death experience'' phenomena., (Web, pdf).

  14. R. Avens, Re-visioning resurrection: St. Paul and Swedenborg, Journal of Religion and Health, 23 (1984), pp. 299-316.
    St. Paul's "spiritual body" is envisaged as imaginal body, the word imaginal standing for the intermediate realm of beings and events in Neoplatonism and Sufism. Swedenborg's world of spirits and angels conforms to this view and so is seen as contributing to a richer understanding of St. Paul in the sense of a "good" docetism. Crucial in this kind of revisioning the mystery of resurrection is the creative power of visionary imagination, which, in turn, is inseparable from the reality of the soul as the situs of visionary events., (pdf).

  15. A. J. Ayer, What I Saw When I Was Dead, Unpublished ms, (2009), pp. 1-6.
    My first attack of pneumonia occurred in the United States. I was in hospital for ten days in New York, after which the doctors said that I was well enough to leave. A final X-ray, however, which I underwent on the last morning, revealed that one of my lungs was not yet free from infection. This caused the most sympathetic of my doctors to suggest that it would be good for me to spend a few more days in hospital. I respected his opinion but since I was already dressed and psychologically disposed to put my illness behind me, I decided to take the risk. I spent the next few days in my stepdaughter's apartment, and then made arrangements to fly back to England., (Web, pdf).

  16. R. C. Babb, Hypnotic induction of experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 65-70.
    (Web, pdf).

  17. L. W. Bailey, A ``Little Death'': The Near-Death Experience and Tibetan Delogs, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 139-159.
    A phenomenon remarkably like the near-death experience has been uncovered in Tibetan culture, aside from the so-called Tibetan Book of the Dead (Thurman, 1994). Anthropologists have gathered accounts of contemporary and historical cases of remarkable people called delogs. Seemingly dead for several hours or days, these people revive spontaneously and tell detailed accounts of otherworldly journeys. Their journey accounts contain elaborate versions of Buddhist otherworldly landscapes and characters, emphasizing the moral and spiritual teachings of Tibetan Buddhism. These delogs are a bridge between contemporary near-death experiences and ancient shamanic practices., (Web, pdf).

  18. B. Bain, Near Death Experiences and Gnostic Christianity: Parallels in Antiquity, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 205-209.
    Long considered to be heretical, ancient Gnostic Christian texts unearthed this century display compelling similarities between Gnostic conceptions of life and death and modern NDEs. The Gnostic texts devoted extensive tracts to what readers could expect to encounter when they died. Other passages make numerous allusions to NDE-like experiences that can be realized in this life, most notably the human encounter with a Divine Light. The Gnostic Christian literature gives us one more example of NDEs and similar experiences in the ancient world., (pdf).

  19. L. Barnett, Hospice nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 225-232.
    I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death phenomena inservice education for hospice nurses and inclusion of NDE content in nursing education programs., (Web, pdf).

  20. R. Basil, The popular appeal of the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 61-68.
    In this article I argue that as scientific research provides an ever-more-complete physiological explanation of the near-death experience (NDE), popular interest in NDEs will wane, because the transcendental interpretation, which holds that the NDE provides proof of an immaterial soul, an afterlife, and assorted paranormal phenomena, has always been the magnet that has attracted widespread attention to the subject. Since the transcendental interpretation resonates with our culture's deepest wishes, dreams, and fears, the television and newspapers have tended to focus on that model almost exclusively. This unbalanced presentation of near-death research has reinforced the traditional image of science as a cold, heartless enterprise. I speculate that, in terms of its popular appeal, future near-death research may well have more impact on the field of psychotherapy than that of religion or the paranormal., (Web, pdf).

  21. K. Basterfield, Australian questionnaire survey of NDEs, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 199-201.
    (Web, pdf).

  22. T. E. Beck and J. E. Colli, A Quantum Biomechanical Basis for Near-Death Life Reviews, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 169-189.
    Near-death life reviews pose a challenge to current memory research in terms of the sheer amount of instantaneous and empathetic information recall. Advances in quantum physics, biomechanics, holographic information theory, and consciousness studies support for the first time a fully realizable quantum biomechanical basis for near-death life reviews. We introduce the unifying paradigm of the quantum hologram as a non-local carrier of information. We further investigate the interrelated phenomena of non-local communications, and the electromagnetic zero-point field. Recent confirmation of the zero-point field lends credibility to vast memory storage capabilities outside the physical body. Microtubules are considered to be key components in non-local, quantum processes critical to human consciousness. Discovery of the liquid crystalline nature of the human body provides further support for our model. Microtubules, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and the entire brain are described as communicating non-locally with virtually unlimited memory storage capacity., (Web, pdf).

  23. C. B. Becker, Death, Intermediate State, and Rebirth in Tibetan Buddhism, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 59-64.
    (Web, pdf).

  24. C. B. Becker, Extrasensory perception, near-death experiences, and the limits of scientific knowledge, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 11-20.
    If mental state can influence the external world, or if alternate dimensions of reality are accessible only in certain mental states, then important aspects of the universe are unknowable with current scientific tools. Near-death studies suggest that both those conditions may occur. Thus the exploration of NDE-like phenomena requires a radically new scientific paradigm., (Web, pdf).

  25. C. B. Becker, Over my dead body there is an ideal utopia: Comments on Kellehear's paper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 97-106.
    Allan Kellehear's near-death experiencers (NDErs) report perceiving a utopia beyond death. I examine the logical implications and philosophical possibilities of such a realm, and come to three conclusions. First, the realms described by NDErs, if taken at face value, are far from utopian, rather resembling travelers' romances with exotic lands. Second, any truly utopian postmortem society is so far removed from our present world as to be morally irrelevant to our own. And third, only an ideational postmortem utopia, of the sort exemplified by Pure Land Buddhist theology, can avoid both the non-utopian nature of NDErs' descriptions and the irrelevance of postmortem utopias., (Web, pdf).

  26. S. Betty, The Near Death Experience as Evidence for Life After Death, Philosophy Now, (2012), pp. 1-4.
    From time to time I ask my students how they feel about life after death. A solid majority say they believe in it, in keeping with most Americans (82/ in a recent Gallup poll). I then ask them to imagine how they would feel if I could prove it didn't exist. ``But you couldn't,'' some insist. ``I know,'' I say, ``but I want you to imagine I could and did. In other words, you actually feel compelled by logic and evidence to stop believing in it. How would you feel then?'' Quite a few say they would live life differently, that it's the reward or punishment of an afterlife which keeps them from being complete animals. Others admit they would live the same way, ``but without much joy.'' They add, ``I mean, if God doesn't love us enough to keep us in existence beyond one measly life, He doesn't love us enough. Would you let your child be snuffed out forever if you could stop it?'' (Good question!) At this point in the conversation, someone - we'll call him an existentialist (he's almost always a male) - usually says life is all the more meaningful and happy because death snuffs us out forever: ``If life just keeps going on forever and ever, then it's not that special. It's because it's so fragile and brief that it's so precious.'' ``But wouldn't you rather live on after death if given a choice?'' someone usually challenges. ``Not really,'' is often the reply. ``You mean you really don't care whether you're immortal or not?'' This rebuttal is usually met with a complacent shrug of the shoulders., (pdf).

  27. A. Bianchi, Comments on ``The Ketamine Model of the Near-Death Experience: A Central Role for the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 71-78.
    Although ketamine can induce a state similar to a near-death experience (NDE), there is a striking difference between experiences induced by ketamine used in a recreational context and in an operating room. Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, as is ibogaine, the main alkaloid of a shrub used in Central Africa to induce NDEs in a religious context. Ibogaine can also elicit different experiences when used in a hallucinatory context or in initiatic rituals, where a superficial state of coma is induced. These data raise the question of whether the chemically-induced NDE-like experience is related to the use of a particular kind of substance or to a genuine comatose state., (Web, pdf).

  28. B. G. Bishop, Book Review: Fingerprints of God: Evidences from Near-Death Studies, Scientific Research on Creation, and Mormon Theology, by Arvin S. Gibson. Bountiful, UT: Horizon, 1999, 320 pp., 19.98, hb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 35-41.
    (Web, pdf).

  29. R. S. Blacher, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 241-242.
    (Web, pdf).

  30. S. J. Blackmore, Near-death experiences in India: They have tunnels too, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 205-217.
    An advertisement in an Indian newspaper solicited accounts from people who had come close to death. Of 19 received, 7 reported no experiences, 4 reported dreamlike experiences, and 8 reported near-death experiences (NDEs). These DNEs were comparable to those reported by Ray-mond Moody, and included tunnels, dark spaces, and bright lights, contrary to previous reports of Indian cases. Many respondents reported positive life changes regardless of whether or not they had an NDE., (Web, pdf).

  31. S. J. Blackmore, Experiences of Anoxia: Do Reflex Anoxic Seizures Resemble Near-Death Experiences?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 111-120.
    The role of anoxia in near-death experiences (NDEs) has been hotly debated. Some argue that anoxia can induce NDEs; others that its effects are quite different. Children suffering from reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) have repeated brief cardiac arrests. A questionnaire about their experiences was sent to members of the British RAS Support Group; 112 questionnaires were completed and 7 children were interviewed. Most recalled nothing from their seizures, but 24/ reported some experience. A few were comparable to NDEs, with tunnels, lights, and out-of-body experiences., (Web, pdf).

  32. S. J. Blackmore and T. S. Troscianko, The physiology of the tunnel, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 15-28.
    Several theories to account for the origin of tunnel hallucinations and tunnel experiences near death are considered: (1) the idea of a ``real'' tunnel; (2) representations of transition; (3) reliving birth memories; (4) imagination; and (5) physiological origins. Three different physiological theories are considered that related the tunnel form to the structure of the visual cortex. All can account for much of the phenomenology of the tunnel experience, and all lead to testable predictions. It is argued that the tunnel experience involves a change in the mental model of the self in the world. Because of this, an experience of purely physiological origin, with no implications for other worlds or for survival, can nevertheless produce lasting changes in the sense of self and reduce the fear of death., (Web, pdf).

  33. R. J. Bonenfant, A Near-Death Experience Followed by the Visitation of an ``Angel-Like'' Being, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 103-113.
    I describe a near-death experience (NDE) followed by a religious experience 15 years later in which the subject was visited by the same ``angel-like'' figure that she saw in the NDE. I describe details of the NDE and of the subsequent visitation; note transformational changes in behavior and associated aftereffects; examine childhood experiences possibly related to the NDE; review the presence of angels in Biblical and mystical literature and in contemporary media; and suggest a possible relationship between latent paranormal abilities and the occurrence of a variety of exceptional experiences., (Web, pdf).

  34. R. J. Bonenfant, A Child's Encounter with the Devil: An Unusual Near-Death Experience with Both Blissful and Frightening Elements, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 87-100.
    I describe the near-death experience (NDE) of a 6-year-old boy who encountered both the devil and God following a near-fatal car accident, and compare recent recollections of the event with those made four years earlier. I discuss the aftereffects of this experience, and review the findings of earlier studies of frightening NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  35. A. L. Botkin, The Induction of After-Death Communications Utilizing Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A New Discovery, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (2000), pp. 181-209.
    A number of authors have described after-death communications (ADCs), in which bereaved individuals experience what they believe is actual spiritual contact with the deceased. ADCs are consistently reported as profoundly loving experiences that greatly assist the grieving process. Although most researchers have argued that ADCs can occur only spontaneously, Raymond Moody's research has indicated that we do have some control over the production of the experience. In this paper I describe a new induction technique that produces ADCs in a more reliable, rapid, and efficient manner. ADCs induced by this new technique provide a more elaborated experience that often fosters complete resolution of grief. These induced ADCs also appear to be much more like near-death experiences (NDEs) than do spontaneous ADCs, which strongly suggests that NDEs and ADCs may be essentially the same phenomenon., (Web, pdf).

  36. A. L. Botkin, Letter to the Editor: Allan Botkin Responds, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 189-191.
    (Web, pdf).

  37. J. J. Braithwaite, D. Samson, I. Apperly, E. Broglia, and J. Hulleman, Cognitive correlates of the spontaneous out-of-body experience (OBE) in the psychologically normal population: Evidence for an increased role of temporal-lobe instability, body-distortion processing, and impairments in own-body transformations, Cortex, 47 (2011), pp. 839-853.
    Recent findings from studies of epileptic patients and schizotypes have suggested that disruptions in multi-sensory integration processes may underlie a predisposition to report out-of-body experiences (OBEs: Blanke et al., 2004; Mohr et al., 2006). It has been argued that these disruptions lead to a breakdown in own-body processing and embodiment. Here we present two studies which provide the first investigation of predisposition to OBEs in the normal population as measured primarily by the recently devised Cardiff anomalous perception scale (CAPS; Bell et al., 2006). The LaunayeSlade Hallucination scale (LSHS) was also employed to provide a measure of general hallucination proneness. In Study 1, 63 University students participated in the study, 17 of whom (26/) claimed to have experienced at least one OBE in their lifetime. OBEers reported significantly more perceptually anomalies (elevated CAPS scores) but these were primarily associated with specific measures of temporal-lobe instability and body-distortion processing. Study 2 demonstrated that OBEers and those scoring high on measures of temporal-lobe instability/body- distortion processing were significantly impaired, relative to controls, at a task requiring mental own-body transformations (OBTs) (Blanke et al., 2005). These results extend the findings from epileptic patient studies to the psychologically normal population and are consistent with there being a disruption in temporal-lobe and body-based processing underlying OBE-type experiences., (Web, pdf).

  38. S. E. Braude, When science is nonscientific, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 113-118.
    (Web, pdf).

  39. B. A. Brodsky, Book Review: Jewish Views of the Afterlife, by Simcha Paull Raphael. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, Inc., 1994, 474 pp, 40.00, hb; and 1996, 30.00, pb., Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 277-284.
    (Web, pdf).

  40. B. A. Brodsky, Letter to the Editor: Beverly Brodsky Responds, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 185-186.
    (Web, pdf).

  41. P. Brugger and C. Mohr, Out of the body, but not out of mind, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 137-140.

  42. R. J. Brumblay, Hyperdimensional perspectives in out-of-body and near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 201-221.
    Recent theories of modern physics predict that the universe has more dimensions than are apparent to us. Many near-death experiencers report the perception that there are more dimensions than we are commonly aware of. These two statements might be related. This article examines the possibility of additional dimensions (hyperdimensions), what they would seem like, and whether they seem to be described by the unusual visual perspectives found in out-of-body and near-death experience accounts. I examine some implications of a hyperdimensional model of the universe., (Web, pdf).

  43. A. A. Buckareff and J. S. Wagenen, Surviving resurrection, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 67 (2010), pp. 123-139.
    In this paper we examine and critique the constitution view of the metaphysics of resurrection developed and defended by Lynne Rudder Baker. Baker identifies three conditions for an adequate metaphysics of resurrection. We argue that one of these, the identity condition, cannot be met on the constitution view given the account of personal identity it assumes. We discuss some problems with the constitution theory of personal identity Baker develops in her book, Persons and Bodies. We argue that these problems render the constitution theory of personal identity as stated by Baker untenable. The upshot for the debate over the metaphysics of resurrection is that the constitution view of the metaphysics of resurrection must either be rejected or modified., (pdf).

  44. N. E. Bush, Book review: Coming back to life: The after-effects of the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 121-128.
    (Web, pdf).

  45. N. E. Bush, Is ten years a life review?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 5-9.
    Looking back on ten years of involvement with near-death studies and with the International Association for Near-Death Studies, I review some of the major questions and accomplishments of that decade both in our understanding of the near-death experience and in our service as an organization., (Web, pdf).

  46. N. E. Bush, Afterward: Making Meaning After a Frightening Near-Death Experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 99-133.
    The routes by which individuals attribute meaning to a near-death experience (NDE) appear to be similar, whether the experience was radiant or terrifying. This article explores three such avenues in relation to frightening experiences. I argue that resisting a terrifying NDE is likely to intensify fearfulness in an individual, and also that a similar effect occurs within society when this type of experience is resisted and misunderstood. The article concludes with an approach to synthesis and suggested techniques that may be useful in integrating the experience., (Web, pdf).

  47. C. Bynum, Material Continuity, Personal Survival, and the Resurrection of the Body: A Scholastic Discussion in Its Medieval and Modern Contexts, History of Religions, 30 (1990), pp. 51-85.
    (Web, pdf).

  48. P. Calvi-Parisetti, 21 Days into the Afterlife, Open Mind, Sept. 2010. (pdf)

  49. D. B. Carr, On the evolving neurobiology of the near-death experience: Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 251-254.
    (Web, pdf).

  50. C. Carter, Parapsychology and the Skeptics, 2007.

  51. D. B. Chamberlain, Book Review: Cosmic Cradle: Souls Waiting in the Wings for Birth, by Elizabeth M. Carman and Neil J. Carman. Fairfield, IA: Sunstar Publishing, 1999, 734 pp + xii, 23.95 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 265-269.
    (Web, pdf).

  52. K. Charmaz, Near-death utopias: Now or later?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 131-134.
    By viewing near-death experiences (NDEs) in the context of the quest for an ideal society, Kellehear offered hope for positive social change and insight into the social, rather than purely personal, meanings of the NDE. However, his approach raised issues of the interpretive research process generally. As with any research, near-death studies are influenced by investigators' questions, interests, and assumptions. Despite the reasoning behind Kellehear's position, he grounded his analysis not in the data, but rather in his typology of ideal societies. I suggest we look first for indications of ideal social order in near-death narratives and only later compare them with types of utopias., (Web, pdf).

  53. J. A. Cheyne and T. A. Girard, The body unbound: Vestibular-motor hallucinations and out-of-body experiences, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 201-215.
    Among the varied hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis (SP), out-of-body experiences (OBEs) and vestibular-motor (V-M) sensations represent a distinct factor. Recent studies of direct stimulation of vestibular cortex report a virtually identical set of bodily-self hallucinations. Both programs of research agree on numerous details of OBEs and V-M experiences and suggest similar hypotheses concerning their association. In the present study, self-report data from two on-line surveys of SP-related experiences were employed to assess hypotheses concerning the causal structure of relations among V-M experiences and OBEs during SP episodes. The results complement neurophysiological evidence and are consistent with the hypothesis that OBEs represent a breakdown in the normal binding of bodily-self sensations and suggest that out-of-body feelings (OBFs) are consequences of anomalous V-M experiences and precursors to a particular form of autoscopic experience, out-of-body autoscopy (OBA). An additional finding was that vestibular and motor experiences make relatively independent contributions to OBE variance. Although OBEs are superficially consistent with universal dualistic and supernatural intuitions about the nature of the soul and its relation to the body, recent research increasingly offers plausible alternative naturalistic explanations of the relevant phenomenology., (Web, pdf).

  54. C. Q. Choi, Peace of Mind: Near-Death Experiences Now Found to Have Scientific Explanations, Scientific American, (2011), pp. 1-2.
    Near-death experiences are often thought of as mystical phenomena, but research is now revealing scientific explanations for virtually all of their common features. The details of what happens in near-death experiences are now known widely--a sense of being dead, a feeling that one's "soul" has left the body, a voyage toward a bright light, and a departure to another reality where love and bliss are all-encompassing., (pdf).

  55. K. Clark, Response to ``adjustment and the near-death experience'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 20-23.
    (Web, pdf).

  56. E. W. Cook, B. Greyson, and I. Stevenson, Do any near-death experiences provide evidence for the survival of human personality after death? Relevant features and illustrative case reports, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 12 (1998), pp. 377-406.
    One of the main reasons that near-death experiences have generated so much interest in recent years among the general public is because they seem to provide evidence that consciousness survives the death of the physical body. It is puzzling, therefore, that most researchers - both those interested in NDEs and those interested in survival research - have neglected to address the question of whether NDEs do provide evidence for survival. We describe three features of NDEs - enhanced mentation, the experience of seeing the physical body from a different position in space, and paranormal perceptions - that we believe might provide convergent evidence supporting the survival hypothesis. We then describe 7 published cases and 7 cases from our own collection that contain all three features. These cases are all - with one possible exception - somewhat deficient with regard to their recording and investigation, but they exemplify the type of case that should be identified earlier and investigated more thoroughly than these have been, and that may then help us decide the extent to which NDEs can contribute to the evidence for survival of consciousness after death., (Web, pdf).

  57. P. M. Cook, The near-death experience, by Calvert Roszell, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 187-188.
    (Web, pdf).

  58. R. B. Cook, Guest editorial: A theory of death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 5-14.
    (Web, pdf).

  59. J. Crumbaugh, A Contribution of Tipler's Omega Point Theory to Near-Death Studies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 5-11.
    A fundamental principle of behavioral and natural scientists is reductionism: all mental phenomena can be reduced to a physical basis. Phenomena that have no physical basis cannot really exist. For most scientists this rules out transpersonal, spiritual or noetic, and religious phenomena, all of which maintain strongly antireductionist positions. Thus near-death researchers have an uphill battle to stay scientifically afloat. However, mathematician Frank Tipler argues that, while reductionism is necessary to the scientific world, it does not negate the religious, noetic, or spiritual dimension of human experience. He demonstrates by hard-core physics the existence of God and religious and spiritual phenomena. While the proofs he offers can be understood only by other astrophysicists, his overall viewpoint is comprehensible by laypeople. I present his concepts and arguments, and highlight the value of this orientation for near-death studies. Tipler's work takes the steam out of scientific rejection of religious, spiritual, or noetic phenomena, and makes it possible to accept these phenomena while maintaining a strictly scientific posture. Near-death researchers can gain a greater degree of scientific acceptance by adopting Tipler's position on reductionism., (pdf).

  60. L. Cunico, Knowledge and Attitudes of Hospital Nurses in Italy Related to Near-Death Experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 37-50.
    I distributed Nina Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire to 750 nurses in three Verona hospitals, and received 476 completed questionnaires. Questionnaire respondents had a modest knowledge of near-death experiences (NDEs). Nevertheless, respondents expressed a positive attitude towards NDEs in general, and towards patients who had had NDEs. Thirty-four percent of the nurses had personally encountered NDErs, and those nurses reported a higher level of knowledge than their colleagues who had not had that opportunity. Furthermore, in relation to the global sample, nurses who had encountered an NDEr showed attitudes that were more positive regarding both the NDE itself and the type of assistance they offered NDErs., (Web, pdf).

  61. L. Davis, A comparison of UFO and near-death experiences as vehicles for the evolution of human consciousness, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 240-257.
    This study compares unidentified flying object experiencers (UFOErs) with near-death experiencers (NDErs) in regard to changes in attitudes toward self, others, and life in general, toward religious or spiritual orientation, and toward psychic abilities and beliefs. Kenneth Ring's questionnaires administered to NDErs (1984) were given in this study to 93 persons whose UFOE included either a light experience, an object experience, or a ``close encounter.'' The author concludes that the UFOE, like the NDE, provides impetus toward spiritual growth, but neither as consistently nor as strongly., (Web, pdf).

  62. A. Dellolio, Do Near-Death Experiences Provide a Rational Basis for Belief in Life after Death?, Sophia, 49 (2010), pp. 113-128.
    In this paper I suggest that near-death experiences (NDEs) provide a rational basis for belief in life after death. My argument is a simple one and is modeled on the argument from religious experience for the existence of God. But unlike the proponents of the argument from religious experience, I stop short of claiming that NDEs prove the existence of life after death. Like the argument from religious experience, however, my argument turns on whether or not there is good reason to believe that NDEs are authentic or veridical. I argue that there is good reason to believe that NDEs are veridical and that therefore it is reasonable to believe in the existence of what they seem to be experiences of, namely, a continued state of consciousness after the death of the body. I will then offer some comments on the philosophical import of NDEs, as well as reflections on the current state of contemporary philosophy in light of the neglect of this phenomenon., (pdf).

  63. B. H. Doherty, University near-death studies fund established, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 199-199.
    (Web, pdf).

  64. F. Dommeyer, Body, mind, and death, World Futures, 3 (1965), pp. 3-73.
    At the outset, it is useful to say what this monograph is designed to do. It is limited to a scholarly consideration of the problem of discarnate survival after bodily death. "Discarnate survival" means that a human being's "soul," "spirit," or "mind," or some part of it, will continue to exist either quite apart from its former body or any other physical body. As used here, the words "soul," "spirit" and "mind" are synonymous, though the latter term is preferred because it has less association with the supernaturalistic and religious. The human mind does exist; that is an empirical fact. The question is: can the human mind or some elements of it exist without a physical body? This question is pertinent because it is an obvious fact that the human body does not last very long after burial despite embalmment. If the mind is to survive death, it must therefore do so without its former body. To "live on" without its former body entails either one or another of two things: (1) the surviving mind must continue to exist solely as mind, or (2) the surviving mind must enter another body. (Paul's view of a "spiritual body," transmigration or reincarnation., Web, pdf).

  65. D. L. Drumm, Near-death accounts as therapy, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 67-70.
    (Web, pdf).

  66. D. L. Drumm, Near-death accounts as therapy: Part 2, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 189-191.
    (Web, pdf).

  67. D. DSouza, Life After Death: The Evidence, (2009), p. 256.
    'Life After Death' is Dinesh D'Souza's follow-up to his 'What's So Great About Christianity'., (Web, pdf).

  68. S. Easton, O. Blanke, and C. Mohr, A putative implication for fronto-parietal connectivity in out-of-body experiences, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 216-227.
    Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are defined as experiences in which a person seems to be awake and sees his body and the world from a location outside his physical body. More precisely, they can be defined by the presence of the following three phenomenological characteristics: (i) disembodiment (location of the self outside one's body); (ii) the impression of seeing the world from an elevated and distanced visuo-spatial perspective (extracorporeal, but egocentric visuo-spatial perspective); and (iii) the impression of seeing one's own body (autoscopy) from this perspective. OBEs have fascinated mankind from time immemorial and are abundant in folklore, mythology, and spiritual experiences of most ancient and modern societies. Here, we review some of the classical precipitating factors of OBEs such as sleep, drug abuse, and general anesthesia as well as their neurobiology and compare them with recent findings on neurological and neurocognitive mechanisms of OBEs. The reviewed data suggest that OBEs are due to functional disintegration of lower-level multisensory processing and abnormal higher-level self-processing at the temporo-parietal junction. We argue that the experimental investigation of the interactions between these multisensory and cognitive mechanisms in OBEs and related illusions in combination with neuroimaging and behavioral techniques might further our understanding of the central mechanisms of corporal awareness and self-consciousness much as previous research about the neural bases of complex body part illusions such as phantom limbs has done., (Web, pdf).

  69. H. Edge, The use of physics in answering metaphysical questions, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 122-126.
    (Web, pdf).

  70. G. F. Ellwood, Religious experience, religious worldviews, and near-death studies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 5-21.
    The tense relation prevailing between representatives of conservative religion and other near-death researchers may be illumined by a look at the different functions religion has fulfilled in the past. Religion may be seen as centering on the meaningfulness of the world, on spiritual experience, or on salvation. In this essay, I sketch the place of these themes in the Great Religions. These themes have inherent mutual tensions that in the case of Christianity cannot necessarily be settled by appeal to the Bible, because different Christian groups have somewhat differing views of the source of authority. Furthermore, the Bible's authority is challenged by the results of modern scholarship. In light of these reflections, I see Michael Sabom's Light & Death (1998) as showing valuable data and insights but failing to respond to significant challenges., (pdf).

  71. G. F. Ellwood, Book Review: The Complete Idiot's Guide to Near-Death Experiences, by P. M. H. Atwater with David H. Morgan. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books/Macmillan USA, 2000, 450 pp + xxvii, 16.95, pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 207-209.
    (Web, pdf).

  72. J. Evans, Near-death experiences, The Lancet, 359 (2002), p. 2116.

  73. E. Facco and C. Agrillo, Near-death experiences between science and prejudice, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6 (2012), pp. 1-7.
    Science exists to refute dogmas; nevertheless, dogmas may be introduced when undemonstrated scientific axioms lead us to reject facts incompatible with them. Several studies have proposed psychobiological interpretations of near-death experiences (NDEs), claiming that NDEs are a mere byproduct of brain functions gone awry; however, relevant facts incompatible with the ruling physicalist and reductionist stance have been often neglected. The awkward transcendent look of NDEs has deep epistemological implications, which call for: (a) keeping a rigorously neutral position, neither accepting nor refusing anything a priori; and (b) distinguishing facts from speculations and fallacies. Most available psychobiological interpretations remain so far speculations to be demonstrated, while brain disorders and/or drug administration in critical patients yield a well-known delirium in intensive care and anesthesia, the phenomenology of which is different from NDEs. Facts can be only true or false, never paranormal. In this sense, they cannot be refused a priori even when they appear implausible with respect to our current knowledge: any other stance implies the risk of turning knowledge into dogma and the adopted paradigm into a sort of theology., (pdf).

  74. E. W. Fenske, The near-death experience: An ancient truth, a modern mystery, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 129-149.
    The near-death experience (NDE), as an experience of whole-ness, an adventure in consciousness, and a metaphoric encounter with light, links theoretical physics with the occult, the Primordial Tradition, and various religious belief systems. Light as image, vehicle, and first cause ties the NDE to mystical experience. Where science sees mystery, religion sees metaphoric truth; the NDE as spiritual quest and physical encounter beckons to both disciplines for explanation., (Web, pdf).

  75. P. Fenwick, Is the Near-Death Experience Only N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Blocking?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 43-53.
    Karl Jansen's interesting hypothesis that near-death experiences (NDEs) result from blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor has several weaknesses. Some NDEs occur to individuals who are neither near death nor experiencing any event likely to upset cerebral physiology as Jansen proposed; thus his hypothesis applies only to a subset of NDEs that occur in catastrophic circumstances. For that subset, the clarity of NDEs and the clear memory for the experience afterward are inconsistent with compromised cerebral function. Jansen's analogy between NDEs and ketamine-induced hallucinations is weakened by the fact that most ketamine users do not believe the events they perceived really happened. Temporal lobe seizures do not resemble NDEs as Jansen postulated; they are confusional, rarely ecstatic, and never clear, as are NDEs, nor are they remembered afterward. Jansen's hypothesis assumes the standard scientific view that brain processes are entirely responsible for subjective experience; however, NDEs suggest that that concept of the mind may be too limited, and that in fact personal experience may continue beyond death of the brain., (Web, pdf).

  76. P. Fenwick, Can Near Death Experiences Contribute to the Debate on Consciousness?, Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship Mindfulness in Behavioral Health, (2012), pp. 143-163.
    The near death experiences (NDEs) is an altered state of consciousness, which has stereotyped content and emotional experience. Some features of the experience are trans-cultural and suggest either a similar brain mechanism or access to a transcendent reality. Individual features of the experience point more persuasively to transcendence than to simple limited brain mechanisms. Moreover there are, so far, no reductionist explanations which can account satisfactorily for some of the features of the NDE; the apparent ``sightedness'' in the blind during an NDE, the apparent acquisition after an NDE of psychic and spiritual gifts, together with accounts of healing occurring during an NDE, and the accounts of veridical experience during the resuscitation after a cardiac arrest. Although nonlocal mind would explain many of the NDE features, nonlocality is not yet accepted by mainstream neuroscience so there is a clear explanatory gap between reductionist materialistic explanations and those theories based on a wider understanding of mind suggested by the subjective experience of the NDEr. Only wider theories of mind would be likely candidates to bridge this gap., (Web, pdf).

  77. L. Fitzpatrick, Is There Life After Death, Time, (2010), pp. 1-2.
    Is there life after death? Theologians can debate all they want, but radiation oncologist Dr. Jeffrey Long argues that if you look at the scientific evidence, the answer is unequivocally yes. Drawing on a decade's worth of research on near-death experiences -- work that includes cataloguing the stories of some 1,600 people who have gone through them -- he makes the case for that controversial conclusion in a new book, Evidence of the Afterlife. Medicine, Long says, cannot account for the consistencies in the accounts reported by people all over the world. He talked to TIME about the nature of near-death experience, the intersection between religion and science and the Oprah effect., (pdf).

  78. C. C. French, Dying to know the truth: visions of a dying brain, or false memories?, The Lancet, 358 (2001), pp. 2010-2011.

  79. C. C. French, Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors, The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology, (2006), p. 351.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) have become the focus of much interest in the last 30 years or so. Such experiences can occur both when individuals are objectively near to death and also when they simply believe themselves to be. The experience typically involves a number of different components including a feeling of peace and well-being, out-of-body experiences (OBEs), entering a region of darkness, seeing a brilliant light, and entering another realm. NDEs are known to have long-lasting transformational effects upon those who experience them. An overview is presented of the various theoretical approaches that have been adopted in attempts to account for the NDE. Spiritual theories assume that consciousness can become detached from the neural substrate of the brain and that the NDE may provide a glimpse of an afterlife. Psychological theories include the proposal that the NDE is a dissociative defense mechanism that occurs in times of extreme danger or, less plausibly, that the NDE reflects memories of being born. Finally, a wide range of organic theories of the NDE has been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, and hypercarbia; endorphins and other neurotransmitters; and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes. Finally, the results of studies of NDEs in cardiac arrest survivors are reviewed and the implications of these results for our understanding of mind-brain relationships are discussed., (pdf).

  80. J. Funk, What survives? Contemporary explorations of life after death, edited by Gary Doore, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1992), pp. 247-253.
    (Web, pdf).

  81. J. Funk, Book Review: Searching for Eternity: A Scientist's Spiritual Journey to Overcome Death Anxiety, by Don Morse. Memphis, TN: Eagle Wing Books, 2000, 428 pp., 19.95, pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 55-58.
    (Web, pdf).

  82. B. G. Furn, Adjustment and the near-death experience: A conceptual and therapeutic model, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 4-19.
    Most mental health practitioners, and counseling psychologists in particular, possess skills for helping near-death experiencers. What is needed is a conceptual framework that is both familiar to practitioners and highly relevant to that client group. Cross-cultural counseling in general, and the consideration of world views more specifically, are suggested. Using that framework, the world view assimilated during the near-death experience (NDE) is viewed as being in contrast to that of the ``old self,'' significant others, and the majority culture. The difficulties reported by NDErs are considered analogous to those associated with culture shock. The world views of the practitioner, NDEr, and relevant others should be taken into account in the formulation of psychoeducational and therapeutic interventions., (Web, pdf).

  83. G. O. Gabbard and S. W. Twemlow, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 261-263.
    (Web, pdf).

  84. G. O. Gabbard and S. W. Twemlow, Do "near-death experiences'' occur only near death?-revisited, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 41-47.
    Ten years ago our research on out-of-body experiences suggested that the elements of the near-death experience (NDE) were not necessarily limited to situations in which survival was threatened. A decade of continued study has confirmed that theperception of being near death, independent of the actual reality of the situation, is the key determinant of the classical NDE. From early in life, the infant's dread of catastrophe leads to the elaboration of extensive psychological defenses against the possibility of extinction. The NDE is simultaneously a manifestation of faith and a catalyst for the development of faith., (Web, pdf).

  85. J. B. Geraci, Comments on Bette Furn's ``adjustment and the near-death experience'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 28-29.
    (Web, pdf).

  86. J. C. Gibbs, Book Review Light and Death: One Doctor's Fascinating Account of Near-Death Experiences, by Michael B. Sabom. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1998, 240 pp. 12.99, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 117-127.
    (Web, pdf).

  87. J. C. Gibbs, God, Tragedy, and the Near-Death Experience: Evaluating Kushner's Perspectives on Theodicy, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 223-259.
    This article evaluates Harold Kushner's original and reconstructed perspectives on God and the theodicic problem on the basis of research on the near-death experience (NDE) and related phenomena. In response to a personal tragedy, Kushner reconstructed his thinking about God and tragedy from his original Causation-Power perspective to an Inspiration-Love perspective. The Causation-Power perspective posits that God causes human events and that tragic events do not actually contradict God's purpose or will, although tragic events may result from the human freedom to disobey God and suffer punitive consequences. In the Inspiration-Love perspective, human freedom expands to mean that God does not cause all events: God does not cause tragedy, suffers with the sufferer, and can intervene against tragic events only by inspiring people to cope with tragedy and care for others. Although the research findings are consistent with Kushner's emphasis on love and inspiration, the theme of divine power and purpose is also evident. Hence, Kushner should not have rejected entirely his early (Causation-Power) perspective. Identified in the research are forms of ``inspiration'' that Kushner did not take into account in his reconstructed (Inspiration-Love) view. The Causation-Power and Inspiration-Love perspectives seem incompatible and neither alone solves the theodicic problem. Nonetheless, they do complement one another; a resolution would permit an integrative understanding of God and tragedy., (Web, pdf).

  88. A. S. Gibson, Religious Wars or Healthy Competition in the NDE Movement?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (2000), pp. 273-276.
    In the early years of near-death research many organized religions rejected the near-death experience (NDE) as a legitimate expression of religious faith. More recently numerous religious apologists have laid claim to NDEs as verifying particular theological beliefs. I see this as a healthy competition between religions, and a competition that results from the very success of the near-death research effort. Religious apologists, however, must be reasonably objective in any juxtapositions of religious philosophy with NDE findings. I point out some problems in this regard with Michael Sabom's recent work. I also argue that Kenneth Ring's recent statements that we might not now be headed toward ``Omega'' as he once thought may be premature., (Web, pdf).

  89. D. Gibson, Near-death experiences get treatment from a Mormon perspective, The Political Surf, (2013), pp. 1-2.
    I'm fascinated by the pop science/theology behind near-death experiences. I've read the ``Life After Life'' books by Raymond Moody and several similar books. It was interesting to discover a new book, ``Glimpses Beyond Death's Door,'' (here) by Brent L.and Wendy C.Top, from the publisher Covenant Communications, which strictly follows LDS theology and authority. One can assume that ``Glimpses ...'' has been thoroughly vetted by LDS leaders., (Web, pdf).

  90. M. D. Gliksman and A. Kellehear, Near-death experiences and the measurement of blood gases, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 41-43.
    Although cerebral anoxia is not thought to be responsible for triggering near-death experiences (NDEs), the issue is not so clear in the case of hypercapnia. Detection of normal blood gases in Michael Sabom's (1982) case study seems to be the major reply to suggestions that hypercapnia may have a causal role in NDEs. We argue, however, that routine arterial measures of blood gases are not a reliable indicator of cerebral levels., (Web, pdf).

  91. B. Golobic, Letter to the Editor: Marian Visionaries of Medjugorje, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 271-271.
    (Web, pdf).

  92. J. S. Gómez-Jeria, A near-death experience among the Mapuche people, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 219-222.
    This paper describes a possible near-death experience (NDE) among the Mapuche people of Chile. The individual reporting the experience was in a cataleptic-like state for two days, the experience itself occurring at the end of this period. Some common features of NDEs, such as encounters with deceased people and being sent back, are present, together with clear evidence that past and present cultural environment shape in part the content of mental experiences., (Web, pdf).

  93. J. T. Green, Near-Death Experiences, Shamanism, and the Scientific Method, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 205-222.
    The first 20 years of near-death studies have thoroughly documented the existence of this phenomenon. The field of near-death studies appears to be evolving from a purely academic one to include an applied, clinical component. I discuss the overlap between shamanism and near-death experiences (NDEs) and suggest that the study of shamanism would be helpful in more fully understanding this phenomena and beginning the development of an applied methodology. Although it may be difficult to verify subjective accounts of NDEs and shamanic journeys, from a clinical stand-point it may not be necessary to do so in order to develop a technique that passes the test of scientific scrutiny., (Web, pdf).

  94. J. T. Green, Book Review Conscious Dreaming: A Spiritual Path for Everyday Life, by Robert Moss. Crown Trade Paperbacks, New York, NY 16.00, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 59-63.
    (Web, pdf).

  95. J. T. Green, The Near-Death Experience as a Shamanic Initiation: A Case Study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 209-225.
    The field of near-death studies shares a number of interesting, often compelling, similarities with the ancient spiritual tradition known as shamanism. Not least among these similarities is the fact that a near-death experience (NDE) is a time-honored form of shamanic initiation. I present a case example illustrating how a deep NDE can propel a person who had no prior knowledge or interest in shamanism into spontaneous, often classic, shamanic experiences, while living an apparently normal life in the midst of modern Western society., (Web, pdf).

  96. F. G. Greene, Book review: The final choice: Playing the survival game, by Michael Grosso, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 44-54.
    (Web, pdf).

  97. F. G. Greene, Motfis of passage into worlds imaginary and fantastic, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1992), pp. 205-231.
    In this paper I match phenomena associated with the passage into otherworlds as reported during out-of-body and near-death experiences, with imagery associated with the passage into otherworlds as depicted in classic modern fantasies and fairy tales. Both sources include sensations of consciousness separating from the body, floating and flying, passage through fluidic spaces or dark tunnels toward bright lights, and emergence into supernatural worlds inhabited by souls of the deceased and by higher spiritual beings; and both describe comparable psychophysical intiatory factors. I introduce a metaphysically neutral depth psychology to explain these parallels, examine two metaphysically opposed extensions to this depth psychology, and consider several implications of a transcendental perspective., (Web, pdf).

  98. F. G. Greene, A Projective Geometry for Separation Experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 151-191.
    I present a projective geometry for out-of-body ``separation experiences,'' built up out of a series of higher space analogies and resulting diagrams. The model draws upon recent understandings of cosmic symmetries linking relativity theory to quantum physics. This perspective is grounded inside a more general hyperspace theory, supposing that our three dimensional space is embedded within a hierarchy of higher dimensions. Only the next higher space, the fourth dimension, is directly utilized in this exposition. At least two degrees of consciousness expansion are identified as prerequisites to a comprehensive phenomenological taxonomy of ecstatic out-of-body, near-death, and mystical/visionary experiences. The first assumes a partial spatiotemporalization of consciousness into a fractional domain located between three and four dimensions. The second assumes a complete spatiotemporalization into four dimensions. Partial expansions are associated with separation experiences and with thematically related activities of a seeming paranormal character. Complete expansions are associated with ``timeless'' life panoramas and with excursions into hyperphysical realms. The paper concentrates on partial expansions, in analyzing the psychodynamics underlying, and ostensive paranormal activities accompanying, separation experiences., (Web, pdf).

  99. F. G. Greene, At the Edge of Eternity's Shadows: Scaling the Fractal Continuum from Lower into Higher Space, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 223-240.
    In this paper, I elaborate the hyperspatial implications of the fractal-scaling scheme that I introduced previously. Four case examples where out-of-body experiencers reported heightened and amplified visual capacities are correlated with this explanatory model. Three of these cases are identified as including an additional hyperspace signifier, the reported capacity to see through solid and opaque physical obstructions. One of these cases included yet another hyperspace signifier, the reported capacity to pass through such obstructions. Additional evidence supportive of this thesis is drawn from the literature on ecstatic experience, including out-of-body, near-death, and other varieties of mystical or visionary experience, and from that on psychedelic experience. Yet other hyperspace signifiers reported by ecstatic voyagers are also considered, including sensations of seeing outward spherically in 360 degrees and of seeing on all sides of three-dimensional solids simultaneously., (Web, pdf).

  100. B. Greyson, Commentary on ''Psychophysiological and Cultural Correlates Undermining a Survivalist Interpretation of Near-Death Experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies.
    Keith Augustine has provided a legitimate and cogent critique of a transcendental interpretation of near-death experiences, exposing weaknesses in the research methodology, paucity of the data, and gaps in the arguments. He offers evidence from psychophysiological and cultural correlates of NDEs that he interprets as favoring a hallucinatory understanding of these phenomena. However, his analysis relies on idiosyncratic definitions of psychological concepts, reads unidirectional causality into bivariate correlations, and underestimates the empirical predictions of the separation hypothesis. Despite less than compelling evidence for the transcendental hypothesis, it accounts for NDE phenomenology better than the materialist model., (Web, pdf).

  101. B. Greyson, The near-death experience scale. Construction, reliability, and validity., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171 (1983), pp. 369-375.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) have been described consistently since antiquity and more rigorously in recent years. Investigation into their mechanisms and effects has been impeded by the lack of quantitative measures of the NDE and its components. From an initial pool of 80 manifestations characteristic of NDEs, a 33-item scaled-response preliminary questionnaire was developed, which was completed by knowledgeable subjects describing their 74 NDEs. Items with significant item-total score correlations that could be grouped into clinically meaningful clusters constituted the final 16-item NDE Scale. The scale was found to have high internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability; was highly correlated with Ring's Weighted Core Experience Index; and differentiated those who unequivocally claimed to have had NDEs from those with qualified or questionable claims. This reliable, valid, and easily administered scale is clinically useful in differentiating NDEs from organic brain syndromes and nonspecific stress responses, and can standardize further research into mechanisms and effects of NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  102. B. Greyson, With the eyes of the mind: An empirical analysis of out-of-body states, by Glen O. Gabbard and Stuart W. Twemlow, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 185-198.
    (Web, pdf).

  103. B. Greyson, Editorial: Can science explain the near-death experience?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 77-92.
    Science is a tool for answering empirical questions; it is not designed to address ontological or teleological issues such as the ultimate reality and meaning of the near-death experience (NDE). There are, however, a number of empirical questions about NDEs that can be explored by the scientific method. Scientific study poses risks both to NDErs and to our understanding of the NDE itself. However, because the NDE allows us unique access to information about consciousness and death, those risks are outweighed by the benefits to NDErs and to humanity derived from a scientific description of NDErs., (Web, pdf).

  104. B. Greyson, Near-death encounters with and without near-death experiences: comparative NDE Scale profiles, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 151-161.
    In a retrospective study contrasting the near-death encounters of 183 persons who reported near-death experiences and 63 persons who re-ported no near-death experience, the two groups did not differ in age, gender, or time elapsed since the near-death encounter. Near-death experiencers reported all 16 items of the NDE Scale significantly more often than did nonexperiencers., (Web, pdf).

  105. B. Greyson, Near-death experiences precipitated by suicide attempt: Lack of influence of psychopathology, religion, and expectations, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 183-188.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs), transcendental or mystical events experienced on the threshold of death, have been speculated to arise from psychopathology or from pre-existing expectations of the dying process, although such speculations have never been tested. Sixty-one consecutive suicide attempters were interviewed in this empirical study of persons who would be expected to have a high rate of both psychopathology and coming close to death; 16 (26/) reported near-death experiences (NDEs) as a result of the attempt. The group reporting NDEs and the group not reporting NDEs did not differ from each other in any parameters measuring psychopathology, religious background, or expectations of death and dying., (Web, pdf).

  106. B. Greyson, Near-death experiences and the physio-kundalini syndrome, Journal of Religion and Health, 25 (1993), pp. 43-58.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs), transcendental experiences on the threshold of death with profound implications for both patient care and religious belief, have been hypothesized to be related to the awakening of a biological process known in Eastern traditions as kundalini. In a test of this proposed association between kundalini and NDEs, a sample of near-death experiencers acknowledged significantly more symptoms of a physio-kundalini syndrome than did control subjects., (Web, pdf).

  107. B. Greyson, The incidence of near-death experiences, Med Psychiatry, 1 (1998), pp. 92-99.
    (Web, pdf).

  108. B. Greyson, Dissociation in people who have near-death experiences: out of their bodies or out of their minds?, The Lancet, 355 (2000), pp. 460-463.
    Some people who come close to death report having experiences in which they transcend the boundaries of the ego and the confines of time and space. Such near- death experiences (NDEs) share some features with the phenomenon of dissociation, in which a person's self identity becomes detached from bodily sensation. This study explored the frequency of dissociative symptoms in people who had come close to death., (Web, pdf).

  109. B. Greyson, Editor's Foreword, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 199-200.
    (Web, pdf).

  110. B. Greyson, Incidence and correlates of near-death experiences in a cardiac care unit, General hospital psychiatry, 25 (2003), pp. 269-276.
    Near-death experiences, unusual experiences during a close brush with death, may precipitate pervasive attitudinal and behavior changes. The incidence and psychological correlates of such experiences, and their association with proximity to death, are unclear. We conducted a 30-month survey to identify near-death experiences in a tertiary care center cardiac inpatient service. In a consecutive sample of 1595 patients admitted to the cardiac inpatient service (mean age 63 years, 61/ male), of whom 7% were admitted with cardiac arrest, patients who described near-death experiences were matched with comparison patients on diagnosis, gender, and age. Near-death experiences were reported by 10% of patients with cardiac arrest and 1% of other cardiac patients (P < .001). Near-death experiencers were younger than other patients (P=.001), were more likely to have lost consciousness (P<.001) and to report prior purportedly paranormal experiences (P=.009), and had greater approach-oriented death acceptance (P=.01). Near-death experiencers and comparison patients did not differ in sociodemographic variables, social support, quality of life, acceptance of their illness, cognitive function, capacity for physical activities, degree of cardiac dysfunction, objective proximity to death, or coronary prognosis., (pdf).

  111. B. Greyson, Near-Death Experiences And Spirituality, Zygon, 41 (2006), pp. 393-414.
    Some individuals when they come close to death report having experiences that they interpret as spiritual or religious. These so-called near-death experiences (NDEs) often include a sense of separation from the physical body and encounters with religious figures and a mystical or divine presence. They share with mystical experiences a sense of cosmic unity or oneness, transcendence of time and space, deeply felt positive mood, sense of sacredness, noetic quality or intuitive illumination, paradoxicality, ineffability, transiency, and persistent positive aftereffects. Although there is no relationship between NDEs and religious belief prior to the experience, there are strong associations between depth of NDE and religious change after the experience. NDEs often change experiencers' values, decreasing their fear of death and giving their lives new meaning. NDEs lead to a shift from ego-centered to other-centered consciousness, disposition to love unconditionally, heightened empathy, decreased interest in status symbols and material possessions, reduced fear of death, and deepened spiritual consciousness. Many experiencers become more empathic and spiritually oriented and express the beliefs that death is not fearsome, that life continues beyond, that love is more important than material possessions, and that everything happens for a reason. These changes meet the definition of spiritual transformation as ``a dramatic change in religious belief, attitude, and behavior that occurs over a relatively short period of time.'' NDEs do not necessarily promote any one particular religious or spiritual tradition over others, but they do foster general spiritual growth both in the experiencers themselves and in human society at large., (Web, pdf).

  112. B. Greyson, Comments on ``Does Paranormal Perception Occur in Near-Death Experiences?'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25 (2007), pp. 237-244.
    Keith Augustine's critique of studies of veridical perception in near-death experiences is based on unsubstantiated speculation from the popular media, rather than on supportive data or peer-reviewed literature. Nevertheless, addressing the issues he raises would improve the methodology of near-death research and strengthen the evidential database for veridical perception., (Web, pdf).

  113. B. Greyson, Consistency of near-death experience accounts over two decades: Are reports embellished over time?, Resuscitation, 73 (2007), pp. 407-411.
    im: ``Near-death experiences,'' commonly reported after clinical death and resuscitation, may require intervention and, if reliable, may elucidate altered brain functioning under extreme stress. It has been speculated that accounts of near- death experiences are exaggerated over the years. The objective of this study was to test the reliability over two decades of accounts of near-death experiences. Methods: Seventy-two patients with near-death experience who had completed the NDE scale in the 1980s (63/ of the original cohort still alive) completed the scale a second time, without reference to the original scale administration. The primary outcome was differences in NDE scale scores on the two administrations. The secondary outcome was the statistical association between differences in scores and years elapsed between the two administrations. Results: Mean scores did not change significantly on the total NDE scale, its 4 factors, or its 16 items. Correlation coefficients between scores on the two administrations were significant at P < 0.001 for the total NDE scale, for its 4 factors, and for its 16 items. Correlation coefficients between score changes and time elapsed between the two administrations were not significant for the total NDE scale, for its 4 factors, or for its 16 items. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation, accounts of near-death experiences, and particularly reports of their positive affect, were not embellished over a period of almost two decades. These data support the reliability of near-death experience accounts., (Web, pdf).

  114. B. Greyson, Near-death experience: clinical implications, Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 34 (2007), pp. 116-125.
    Background: When some people come close to death, they report a profound experience of transcending the physical world that often leads to spiritual transformation. These ``near-death experiences'' (NDEs) are relevant to clinicians because they lead to changes in beliefs, attitudes, and values; they may be mistaken for psychopathological states, although producing different sequelae requiring different therapeutic approaches; and because they may enhance our understanding of consciousness. Objectives: This literature review examined the evidences regarding explanations proposed to explain NDEs, including expectation, birth memories, altered blood gases, toxic or metabolic hallucinations, and neurochemical and neuroanatomical models. Methods: The literature on NDEs of the past 30 years was examined comprehensively, including medical, nursing, psychological, and sociological databases. Results: NDEs typically produce positive changes in attitudes, beliefs, and values, but may also lead to interpersonal and intrapsychic problems. These problems have been compared to various mental disorders, but are distinguishable from them. Various therapeutic strategies have been proposed to help experiencers with problematic aftereffects, but have not been tested yet. Conclusions: The mystical consciousness and higher mental activity during NDEs, when the brain is severely impaired, challenge current models of brain/mind interaction and may occasionally lead to more complete models for the understanding of consciousness., (Web, pdf).

  115. B. Greyson, The Mystical Impact of Near-Death Experiences, The Frontiers Of Consciousness, (2007).
    Once regarded as meaningless hallucinations, near-death experiences (NDEs) have become the subject of serious study by medical and various other researchers in recent years. Descriptions of near-death experiences can be found in the folklore and writings of European, Middle Eastern,African, Indian, East Asian, Pacific, and Native American cultures. In 1892, geologist Albert von St. Gallen Heim published a collection of personal NDE testimonies from mountain climbers who had fallen in the Alps (as he himself had), soldiers wounded in war, workers who had fallen from scaffolds, and those who had nearly died in drownings and other accidents. NDEs continue to be reported by individuals who were pronounced clinically dead but then were resuscitated, by people who in the course of accidents or illnesses feared that they were near death, and by some who actually died but were able to describe their experiences in their final moments (``deathbed visions'')., (Web, pdf).

  116. B. Greyson, Four Errors Commonly Made by Professional Debunkers, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 26 (2008), pp. 231-238.
    In an editorial previously published in this Journal (Grossman, 2002), I coined the term ``fundamaterialist'' to characterize a person whose attitude towards materialism is the same as the fundamentalist's attitude towards his or her religion. In each case, the attitude is one of unwavering certainty towards the chosen ideology. For fundamaterialists, materialism does not appear to be an empirical hypothesis about the real world; it appears to be a given, an article of faith, the central tenet of his web of belief, around which everything else must conform., (pdf).

  117. B. Greyson, Hypercapnia and hypokalemia in near-death experiences, Critical Care, 14 (2010), p. 420.
    Klemenc-Ketis and colleagues' novel report of hypercapnia and hypokalemia associated with near-death experiences (NDEs) [1] was somewhat surprising, as Sabom [2] had previously reported lower than normal carbon dioxide levels measured at the time of a patient's NDE, and Parnia and colleagues, in a prospective study of 63 cardiac arrest survivors, had found no significant association of either potassium or carbon dioxide with NDEs [3]. Klemenc-Ketis and colleagues' conclusion that hypercapnia plays a role in provoking NDEs is one possible interpretation of the correlation they found. It is also plausible that hypercapnia is simply an indicator of another factor that may be linked causally to NDE reports. For example, the authors noted that hypercapnia indicates better cardiac output and perfusion pressure, which would reduce the amnesia that is usually seen in cardiac arrest, so that patients would be more likely to remember what happened during the arrest. The association between NDEs and hypercapnia may thus indicate simply that patients who are able to recall more of their cardiac arrest also report more NDEs. Gliksman and Kellehear reviewed studies showing that levels of carbon dioxide in the blood are not necessarily accurate estimates of levels in the brain [4], which further complicates the interpretation of the current findings. The small sample size of this study, the contradictory evidence from other studies, and the unclear association between levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and in the brain suggest caution in interpreting the findings and suggest the need for further research., (Web, pdf).

  118. B. Greyson, Implications of near-death experiences for a postmaterialist psychology., Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2 (2010), pp. 37-45.
    Classical physics, anchored in materialist reductionism, offered adequate descriptions of everyday mechanics but ultimately proved insufficient for describing the mechanics of extremely high speeds or small sizes, and was supplemented nearly a century ago by quantum physics, which includes consciousness in its formulation. Materialist psychology, modeled on the reductionism of classical physics, likewise offered adequate descriptions of everyday mental functioning but ultimately proved insufficient for describing mentation under extreme conditions, such as the continuation of mental function when the brain is inactive or impaired, such as occurs near death. ``Near-death experiences'' include phenomena that challenge materialist reductionism, such as enhanced mentation and memory during cerebral impairment, accurate perceptions from a perspective outside the body, and reported visions of deceased persons, including those not previously known to be deceased. Complex consciousness, including cognition, perception, and memory, under conditions such as cardiac arrest and general anesthesia, when it cannot be associated with normal brain function, require a revised psychology anchored not in 19th-century classical physics but rather in 21st-century quantum physics that includes consciousness in its conceptual formulation., (Web, pdf).

  119. B. Greyson, Seeing Dead People Not Known to Have Died: ``Peak in Darien'' Experiences, Anthropology and Humanism, 35 (2010), pp. 159-171.
    The ubiquitous belief that, after death, our consciousness might persist in some discarnate form is fueled in part by phenomena like near-death experiences (NDEs) and deathbed visions, mystical experiences reported on the threshold of death. Some NDEs, called ``Peak in Darien'' experiences, include visions of deceased people who are not known at the time to be dead. Cases of this kind provide some of the most persuasive evidence for the survival of consciousness after bodily death., (Web, pdf).

  120. B. Greyson, Cosmological implications of near-death experiences, Journal of Cosmology, 14 (2011), pp. 4684-4696.
    "Near-death experiences" include phenomena that challenge materialist reductionism, such as enhanced mentation and memory during cerebral impairment, accurate perceptions from a perspective outside the body, and reported visions of deceased persons, including those not previously known to be deceased. Complex consciousness, including cognition, perception, and memory, under conditions such as cardiac arrest and general anesthesia, when it cannot be associated with normal brain function, requires a revised cosmology anchored not in 19th-century classical physics but rather in 21st-century quantum physics that includes consciousness in its conceptual formulation. Classical physics, anchored in materialist reductionism, offered adequate descriptions of everyday mechanics but ultimately proved insufficient for describing the mechanics of extremely high speeds or small sizes, and was supplemented a century ago by quantum physics. Materialist psychology, modeled on the reductionism of classical physics, likewise offered adequate descriptions of everyday mental functioning but ultimately proved insufficient for describing mentation under extreme conditions, such as the continuation of mental function when the brain is inactive or impaired, such as occurs near death., (Web, pdf).

  121. B. Greyson, Meaningful Coincidences and Near-Death Experiences, Psychiatric Annals, (2011).
    Attribution of meaning to coincidences is problematic because in a sufficiently large population, even low-probability events are likely to happen by chance; exposure to common information sources increases the likelihood of people having similar thoughts; and a person's history, cognitive style, and emotional state strongly influence whether a coincidence is considered meaningful, (Web, pdf).

  122. B. Greyson and N. E. Bush, Distressing near-death experiences., Psychiatry, 55 (1992), pp. 95-110.
    Most reported near-death experiences include profound feelings of peace, joy, and cosmic unity. Less familiar are the reports following close brushes with death of experiences that are partially or entirely unpleasant, frightening, or frankly hellish. While little is known about the antecedents or aftereffects of these distressing experiences, there appear to be three distinct types, involving (1) phenomenology similar to peaceful near-death experiences but interpreted as unpleasant, (2) a sense of nonexistence or eternal void, or (3) graphic hellish landscapes and entities. While the first type may eventually convert to a typical peaceful experience, the relationship of all three types to prototypical near-death experiences merits further study. The effect of the distressing experience in the lives of individuals deserves exploration, as the psychological impact may be profound and long-lasting., (Web, pdf).

  123. B. Greyson and B. Harris, Clinical approaches to the near-death experiencer, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 41-52.
    The literature on near-death experiences (NDEs) and their aftereffects has focused on the positive personality transformations and spiritual development that often follow an NDE, while it has neglected the emotional and interpersonal problems sometimes precipitated by the experience. We report general guidelines and specific interventions, developed at an interdisciplinary conference, to assist NDErs in coping with psychological difficulties following their experiences., (Web, pdf).

  124. B. Greyson and J. M. Holden, Failure to elicit near-death experiences in induced cardiac arrest, Journal of Near-Death Studies, (2006).
    Persons reporting near-death experiences (NDEs) sometimes describe a sense of having been out of their bodies and observing their surroundings from a visual perspective outside of and above their bodies. We attempted to study such phenomena during the surgical implantation of automatic implantable cardioverters/defibrillators (ICDs), electrical devices that monitor the patient's heartbeat and automatically detect cardiac arrest and administer an electrical shock to return the heart to normal rhythm. When ICDs are implanted in a patient's chest, cardiac arrest is induced under closely monitored conditions, in order to test the ICD's sensitivity and effectiveness. This study was designed to investigate the accuracy of out-of-body perceptions during NDEs that occur during these induced cardiac arrests. A computer in the operating room displayed quasi-randomly-selected unusual visual targets so that they were visible only from above eye level, from a visual perspective looking down upon the body of the unconscious patient. In a series of 52 induced cardiac arrests, no patient reported having had a near-death experience, and none reported a sense of having left the physical body or observing from an outof-body visual perspective. This failure to find a single NDE in 52 induced cardiac arrests may have been due to preoperative reassurances that patients would not be in danger of dying, the brief duration of the induced cardiac arrest, or the amnestic effects of pre-anesthetic sedative medication., (Web, pdf).

  125. B. Greyson, J. M. Holden, and P. v. Lommel, `There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences' revisited: comment on Mobbs and Watt, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (2012), pp. 1-1.
    In a recent article in this journal entitled `There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences', Dean Mobbs and Caroline Watt [1] concluded that `[t]aken together, the scientific evidence suggests that all aspects of the near-death experience have a neurophysiological or psychological basis' (p. 449). We suggest that Mobbs and Watt explained `all aspects' of near-death experiences (NDEs) by ignoring aspects they could not explain and by overlooking a substantial body of empirical research on NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  126. N. Grossman, Guest Editorial: Who's Afraid of Life After Death?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 5-24.
    The evidence for an afterlife is sufficiently strong and compelling that an unbiased person ought to conclude that materialism is a false theory. Yet the academy refuses to examine the evidence, and clings to materialism as if it were a priori true, instead of a posteriori false. I suggest several explanations for the monumental failure of curiosity on the part of academia. First, there is deep confusion between the concepts of evidence and proof. Second, materialism functions as a powerful paradigm that structures the shape of scientific explanations, but is not itself open to question. The third explanation is intellectual arrogance, as the possible existence of disembodied intelligence threatens the materialistic belief that the educated human brain is the highest form of intelligence in existence. Finally, there is a social taboo against belief in an afterlife, as our whole way of life is predicated on materialism and might collapse if near-death experiences, particularly the life review, were accepted as fact., (Web, pdf).

  127. M. Grosso, Remarks on Janusz Slawinski's paper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 95-97.
    (Web, pdf).

  128. M. Grosso, The myth of the near-death journey, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 49-60.
    I examine in this article the meaning and developmental potential of the near-death experience (NDE) as a stimulus to inner exploration. The NDE as a prototype of the transcendent contact encounter offers a model for an evolutionary theory of religion. My own experiences and contemporary portrayals of NDEs suggest that the experience is a vehicle for the mythic renewal of our idea of death as a journey rather than as a termination, and may be a stimulus for spiritual revolution., (Web, pdf).

  129. M. Grosso, Book Review: Lessons from the Light: What We Can Learn from the Near-Death Experience, by Kenneth Ring and Evelyn Elsaesser Valarino. New York, NY: Insight/Plenum, 1998, 29.95, hb; Portsmouth, NH: Moment Point Press, 2000, 16.95, pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 115-121.
    (Web, pdf).

  130. M. Grosso, Guest Editorial: Afterlife Research and the Shamanic Turn, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 5-14.
    In Western culture, approaches to the afterlife have mutated throughout history, from shamanism and mythology to philosophy, spiritualism, and psychical research. For conceptual reasons, however, survival research seems to many to be languishing, despite some remarkable recent advances. I urge a return to a more experience-based approach, modeled after features of the near-death experience, for its practical benefits; I intend that approach to complement other forms of research, not displace them. Finally, I underscore the unique status of survival research as a scientific pursuit., (Web, pdf).

  131. S. C. Gunn, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 267-272.
    (Web, pdf).

  132. S. C. Gunn, Essay Review: Interrupting, Talking Back, and Making Tracks Through the Middle: A Feminist Review of The Last Laugh, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 51-59.
    (Web, pdf).

  133. K. Harary, Comments on Slawinski's paper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 98-99.
    (Web, pdf).

  134. A. Hastings, Other lives, other selves: A Jungian psychotherapist discovers past lives, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 59-64.
    (Web, pdf).

  135. A. Hastings, Guest Editorial: The Resistance to Belief, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 77-98.
    William James's essay ``The Will to Believe'' proposed that we are sometimes justified, even obligated, to believe from our strong emotional or passional nature that something is true, even though there may not be total logical, evidential proof--which he also wrote is not to be found in this world. This essay explores situations, using a recent dear-death experience (NDE) example, in which there are reasonable evidence and logic, and yet belief seems to be withheld. I postulate and discuss nonrational influences producing resistance to belief, including the fear of being in error, the fear of rejection from the scientific community, irrational requirements of logicality, avoidance of consequences, and paradigm fixation. I also discuss issues in philosophy of science and epistemology in regard to proof., (Web, pdf).

  136. B. Haussamen, Three Fictional Deaths Compared with the Near-Death Experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 91-102.
    This study looks at three popular works of short fiction, by Leo Tolstoy, Ambrose Bierce, and Katherine Anne Porter, in which the main character dies at the end. Some similarities between these deaths and recent near-death experience (NDE) accounts are that the characters experience various kinds of distancing from their bodies, light and darkness play a role, and two of the stories include a final life review. The principal contrast is that dying in these stories is a lonely and mostly grim business, unsupported by a process that transcends the individual or by progress toward an afterlife or otherworld. The comparison helps define the modern sensibility about dying that is part of the cultural context for interest in NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  137. E. J. Hermann, The near-death experience and the Taoism of Chuang Tzu, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 175-190.
    This paper compares excerpts from Chuang Tzu's writings and the descriptions of near-death experiencers (NDErs). Similarities between the beliefs of NDErs and those of Taoist patriarch Chuang Tzu suggest that NDErs have experienced a kind of awakening that leads them to reject conventional attitudes toward life and death., (Web, pdf).

  138. J. M. Holden, Rationale and considerations for proposed near-death research in the hospital setting, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 19-31.
    Further research into the question of veridical perception during the ``naturalistic'' near-death out-of-body experience (nND OBE), that phase of the near-death experience in which the experiencer seems to be perceiving a normal earthly realm, would be of value to NDErs, their caregivers, and humanity in general. I propose a research procedure that targets visual perception during nND OBEs that occur in the hospital setting. I discuss unresolved issues in the design and implementation of such a procedure, and identify areas for further research., (Web, pdf).

  139. J. M. Holden, Visual perception during naturalistic near-death out-of-body experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 107-120.
    This study attempted to ascertain the most appropriate content and placement of visual stimuli in a hospital-based study of the veridicality of out-of-body perception in the near-death experience (NDE), and the likelihood that a subject in such a study would notice, clearly perceive, and accurately recall a visual stimulus. Based on the questionnaire responses of 63 subjects who had near-death out-of-body experiences (ND OBEs), at least some of the respondents described sufficiently complete and accurate visual perception during the experience to warrant the pursuit of veridicality research in hospitals. Recommended stimulus content for such research includes a surface with intense color and lighting, and simple number and/or letter combinations. Stimuli should be as far below ceiling level as possible while maintaining double-blind criteria. Some characteristics of the individual NDE and NDEr may affect veridical perception during the ND OBE., (Web, pdf).

  140. J. M. Holden, Unexpected findings in a study of visual perception during the naturalistic near-death out-of-body experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 155-163.
    A study (Holden, 1988) of visual perception during the naturalistic near-death out-of-body experience (nND OBE), that aspect of the NDE in which the experiencer seems to view normal physical surroundings from a vantage point outside the physical body, yielded some unexpected findings that contradicted or augmented previous research. The majority of respondents were able to estimate the duration of the nND OBE; a sizable proportion reported delay of recall of the nND OBE; and the vast majority reported receptivity to subsequent verification of nND OBE perceptions. Each of these findings is discussed relative to previous research and analyzed in light of the limitations of the current study. Implications for further research are discussed., (Web, pdf).

  141. J. M. Holden, Many lives, many masters, by Brian L. Weiss, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 57-61.
    (Web, pdf).

  142. J. M. Holden, Book Review A Farther Shore: How Near-Death and Other Extraordinary Experiences Can Change Ordinary Lives, by Yvonne Kason and Teri Degler. Toronto, Ontario: HarperCollins, 1996, 26.00 hb, 16.99 pb., Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 121-125.
    (Web, pdf).

  143. J. M. Holden and L. Joesten, Near-death veridicality research in the hospital setting: Problems and promise, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 45-54.
    We attempted to conduct near-death veridicality research in the hospital setting, the rationale for which (we presented previously (Holden, 1988).) This paper describes problems, both anticipated and unanticipated, that we encountered. Based on the successes and failures of this undertaking, we present recommendations for future research of this type., (Web, pdf).

  144. B. J. Horacek, Amazing Grace: The Healing Effects of Near-Death Experiences on Those Dying And Grieving, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 149-161.
    Kenneth Ring (1991) argued that near-death experiences (NDEs) act as compensatory gifts helping individuals cope with and understand life's difficulties. He saw NDEs as conferring "amazing grace" on individuals whose lives were spinning out of control toward self-destruction. Expanding on Ring's contention that NDEs can be seen as healing gifts, this study presents evidence of seven categorical situations where participating in or knowledge of NDEs and nearing-death awareness experiences serve as healing agents in facing one's own death or the death of a significant other. NDEs and nearing death awareness seem to free persons from paralyzing death anxiety and, consequently, allow them to focus on additional ways to help each other face dying and grieving., (Web, pdf).

  145. B. J. Horacek, Book Review Parting Visions: Uses and Meanings of Pre-Death, Psychic, and Spiritual Experiences, by Melvin Morse, with Paul Perry. New York, NY: Villard, 1994, xvi + 207 pp, 20.00, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 223-227.
    (Web, pdf).

  146. B. J. Horacek, Letter to the Editor: EMDR, ADCs, NDEs, and the Resolution of Loss, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 186-189.
    (Web, pdf).

  147. G. Howarth and A. Kellehear, Shared Near-Death and Related Illness Experiences: Steps on an Unscheduled Journey, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 71-85.
    This paper discusses the key social features in shared journeys into near-death experiences (NDEs) and related illness experiences of other people. Of special interest in this paper is the way that those persons who are not ill or near death account for their sharing of these experiences. These are often people who are caregivers or intimates of NDErs or dying people but who claim to share part of the NDE or dying experience. We provide case examples to illustrate the essential psychological and social experiences that these people undergo during their joint experiences with NDErs and other seriously ill people. From an analysis of the recurrent themes emergent in these joint experiences we identify and discuss the major conceptual steps in the creation of their personal explanations: (1) Exit the Familiar, (2) Extraordinary Experiences, (3) Extraordinary Experiences End, (4) What Happened to Me? (5) The World Responds, and (6) The Return of the Native. In the final analysis, the processes that these people undergo in the search for explanations is similar in most respects to those at the center of near-death and other related illness experiences., (Web, pdf).

  148. H. J. Irwin, Out-of-Body experiences in the blind, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 53-60.
    The theoretical significance of out-of-body experiences in blind people is explored. In this context I report results of a survey of a small sample of blind adults. It is concluded that we have yet to locate a case of an out-of-body experience in the blind that has critical implications for the interpretation of the experience among the general population., (Web, pdf).

  149. H. J. Irwin and B. A. Bramwell, The devil in heaven: A near-death experience with both positive and negative facets, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 38-43.
    Although the considerable majority of reported near-death experiences (NDEs) are associated with positive affect, there are occasional cases of so-called negative NDEs that are dominated by fear and anguish. The phenomenological status of the negative experiences and their relationship to the more typical positive NDEs have been the subject of increasing speculation. In that light, the NDE described in this paper is of interest because it began to unfold as a positive experience but then changed course to become a negatively toned one. We present the details of this case and note its principal theoretical implications., (Web, pdf).

  150. M. Jambor, The Mystery of Frightening Transcendent Experiences: A Rejoinder to Nancy Evans Bush and Christopher Bache, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 163-176.
    In this essay, I review Christopher Bache's (1994) perinatal account of near-death experiences (NDEs) and suggest that it does not go far enough. I then present a new model, bliss/abyss, derived from the study of mysticism; show that pleasant and frightening NDEs can be accommodated within the model; and discuss the predictions that can be drawn from the new theoretical framework. The implication for near-death research is that there may be several types of frightening NDEs beyond the three types recently identified by Bruce Greyson and Nancy Evans Bush (1992). I emphasize understanding the powerful emotional force that ensures that all frightening experiences, whether NDEs, perinatal, or spontaneous, have a taste of hell. Extending Bush's intuition, I argue that both pleasant and frightening transcendent experiences intimate the ultimate reality through the colored glasses of bliss and horror respectively. Finally, I suggest areas for further research., (Web, pdf).

  151. K. L. R. Jansen, Neuroscience and the near-death experience: roles for the NMSA-PCP receptor, the sigma receptor and the endopsychosins, Medical hypotheses, 31 (1990), pp. 25-29.
    The Near-Death Experience (NDE) is a dissociative mental state with characteristic features. These can be reproduced by ketamine which acts at sigma sites and blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) linked phencyclidine (PCP) receptors to reduce ischaemic damage. Endogenous ligands, alpha and beta-endopsychosin, have been detected for these receptors which suggests an explanation for some NDE's: the endopsychosins may be released in abnormal quantity to protect neurons from ischaemic and other excitotoxic damage, and the NDE is a side effect on consciousness with important psychological functions., (pdf).

  152. K. L. R. Jansen, Response to Commentaries on "The Ketamine Model of the Near-Death Experience ...", Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 79-95.
    The commentators on my paper raised several interesting issues. Set and setting do influence drug effects, but they also influence near-death experiences (NDEs). Some NDEs are very anxiety-generating, just like some ketamine experiences, though frightening NDEs have been ignored by most researchers. High frequency, compulsive ketamine use is rare. While dimethyltryptamine (DMT) may induce NDEs, this is far from typical, while NDE-like effects are typical of ketamine. Rapidity of onset is not related to the capacity of a drug to induce NDEs. The reality of endopsychosins is doubtful, but the reality of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blocking mechanisms is not. NDEs and dream sleep may involve similar mechanisms. Altered states of consciousness do not require a normally functioning brain. Finally, I discuss the possible evolutionary advantage of the NDE mechanism., (Web, pdf).

  153. K. L. R. Jansen, The Ketamine Model of the Near-Death Experience: A Central Role for the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 5-26.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be reproduced by ketamine via blockade of receptors in the brain for the neurotransmitter glutamate, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Conditions that precipitate NDEs, such as hypoxia, ischemia, hypoglycemia, and temporal lobe epilepsy, have been shown to release a flood of glutamate, overactivating NMDA receptors and resulting in neurotoxicity. Ketamine prevents this neurotoxicity. There are substances in the brain that bind to the same receptor site as ketamine. Conditions that trigger a glutamate flood may also trigger a flood of neuroprotective agents that bind to NMDA receptors to protect cells, leading to an altered state of consciousness like that produced by ketamine., (Web, pdf).

  154. D. M. Johnson, Counseling after an NDE, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 264-265.
    (Web, pdf).

  155. D. Kazanis, Book Review Future Memory: How Those Who ``See the Future'' Shed New Light on the Workings of the Human Mind, by P. M. H. Atwater. New York, NY: Birch Lane Press, 1995, 224 pp., 17.95, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 55-57.
    (Web, pdf).

  156. A. Kellehear, Glimpses of utopia near death? a rejoinder, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 135-141.
    Five scholars have offered comments, suggestions, and criticisms of my paper ``Near-Death Experiences and Pursuit of the Ideal Society.'' In this rejoinder, I reply to those comments and elaborate on aspects of my earlier paper. I discuss issues of methodology, epistemology, validity, logic, and other social considerations with respect to the plausibility of viewing some near-death imagery as utopian. I conclude with some reflections on the social character and study of the near-death experience., (Web, pdf).

  157. A. Kellehear, Near-death experiences and the pursuit of the ideal society, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 79-95.
    Up to one half of near-death experiencers report a social and physical realm beyond death. I describe the features of this afterlife society and compare them with previous ideas about the ideal society. I argue that the society so often mentioned by near-death experiencers is a unique type of utopian society. As stories from utopia, near-death experiences (NDEs) serve as inspirational narratives that help us re-evaluate the social world and our place in it. They also help integrate sometimes contradictory paradigms from religion, politics, and science. In this way, NDE narratives may be seen as the latest chapter in a long search for better social ideas about living harmoniously with each other., (Web, pdf).

  158. A. Kellehear, An Hawaiian Near-Death Experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 31-35.
    This paper is a case report of an Hawaiian near-death experience (NDE) from the early 1900s, which was uncovered in a turn-of-the-century monograph of Hawaiian folk tales (Thrum, 1907). The account differs from others in the same volume because it appears to be a real-life account rather than a folk tale. I describe similarities and differences from other Pacific area accounts, with particular attention to the only other Polynesian NDE account in the literature, a Maori NDE reported by Michael King in 1985., (pdf).

  159. A. Kellehear and P. Heaven, Community attitudes toward near-death experiences: An Australian study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 165-172.
    In an Australian survey of community attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 173 respondents were asked to read a hypothetical description of an NDE and to select from a range of explanations that might approximate their own. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents believed the NDE was evidence of life after death, while less than 2 percent believed the NDE was a sign of mental illness. Women, younger persons, and those who professed a belief in life after death were more likely to react positively to the NDE described., (Web, pdf).

  160. A. Kellehear, P. Heaven, and J. Gao, Community attitudes toward near-death experiences: A Chinese study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 163-173.
    In a survey of Chinese attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 197 respondents were read a hypothetical description of an NDE and asked to choose from a range of explanations and social reactions that might approximate their own. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believed that NDEs were probably hallucinations or dreams. Less than nine percent believed the NDE was evidence of life after death. Rural and younger persons were more likely to react positively to NDErs. The results are discussed with reference to an earlier Australian study by Kellehear and Heaven (1989)., (Web, pdf).

  161. A. Kellehear and H. J. Irwin, Five minutes after death: A study of beliefs and expectations, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 77-90.
    This paper examines the beliefs and expectations that a sample of 508 people hold about the first five minutes after death. A substantial minority believed that they will experience the main elements of the neardeath experience (NDE). In general these elements were cited more frequently than were Biblical images. Six percent of the sample said that postmortem survival for them will be a negative and disturbing experience. We discuss these results in terms of their methodological implications for other survey work and their theoretical contribution toward our understanding of negative NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  162. E. W. Kelly, Book Review: On the Other Side of Life: Exploring the Phenomenon of the Near-Death Experience, by Evelyn Elsaesser Valarino. New York: Insight Books, 1997, 353 +xiv pp, 29.95 hb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 123-130.
    (Web, pdf).

  163. E. W. Kelly and D. Arcangel, An Investigation of Mediums Who Claim to Give Information About Deceased Persons, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199 (2011), pp. 11-17.
    Growing public interest in the phenomenon of mediumship, particularly among bereaved persons, suggests the need for renewed controlled studies of mediums, both to provide potential clients with criteria for judging mediums and to help researchers learn whether they can produce specific and accurate information to which they have had no normal access and, if so, under what conditions. Two research studies were conducted in which mediums provided readings about particular deceased persons to a proxy sitter. The real sitters then blindly rated the reading that was intended for them along with several control readings. In the first study, the results were not significant. In the second, much larger study the results were highly significant (z = -3.89, p < 0.0001, 2-tailed). The authors discuss 2 possible weaknesses of the successful study and indicate some directions for further research., (pdf).

  164. R. E. Kelly, Post Mortem Contact by Fatal Injury Victims with Emergency Service Workers at the Scenes of Their Death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 25-33.
    Ninety selected emergency service workers (68 police officers and 22 firefighter/emergency medical service personnel) were interviewed or completed questionnaires to determine if they had experienced a sense or feeling of ``communication, presence, or attachment''from victims of fatal injury whom they had attended at death. Remarkably similar or related experiences were reported by 28 percent of the subjects. Reports ranged from simple affirmative responses to detailed descriptions. Partners corroborated two events, and several accounts described the location of the victim as above, over their shoulder, or looking down upon them, similar to accounts reported by survivors of near-death experiences. None of the subjects reported or displayed any symptoms of mental illness beyond usual posttraumatic event reactions, and all were experienced in their respective professions. I discuss the nature of these contacts and why similar reports of contact by deceased victims with attendees at their death have not appeared elsewhere; and I suggest studies with a more refined question protocol with other populations, such as hospital emergency room personnel, hospice care staff, chaplains, other clergy, and funeral home workers., (Web, pdf).

  165. W. M. Kincaid, Sabom's study should be repeated, contained a typographical error in the third sentence that, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 72-72.
    (Web, pdf).

  166. H. Knoblauch, I. Schmied, and B. Schnettler, Different Kinds of Near-Death Experience: A Report on a Survey of Near-Death Experiences in Germany, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 15-29.
    This article provides a short summary of a representative survey on near-death experiences (NDEs) in Germany, which is the first of its kind in Europe. We tested several assumptions derived from previous research on NDEs, including the assumptions of a unified pattern of experience, the universality of the pattern, and the necessary link between NDEs and clinical death. We received replies from more than 2,000 persons, 4 percent of whom reported NDEs. The patterns of the NDEs did not seem to correspond to earlier findings: aside from being much more diverse, they also differed with respect to cultural variables, particularly the difference between religious interpretations and the differences between post-socialist East Germany and West Germany., (Web, pdf).

  167. S. Krippner, Fields within fields, questions within questions: A comment on ``Electromagnetic radiation and the afterlife'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 100-102.
    (Web, pdf).

  168. V. Krishnan, Consciousness and substance: The primal forms of god, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 119-121.
    (Web, pdf).

  169. V. Krishnan, A theory of death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 133-134.
    (Web, pdf).

  170. V. Krishnan, A neurobiological model for near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 197-198.
    (Web, pdf).

  171. V. Krishnan, The physical basis of out-of-body vision, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 257-260.
    (Web, pdf).

  172. V. Krishnan, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 65-67.
    (Web, pdf).

  173. V. Krishnan, Letter to the Editor: A Philosopher's View of Near-Death Research, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 269-271.
    (Web, pdf).

  174. V. Krishnan, J. K. Arnette, and E. Elsaesser-Valarino, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 131-138.
    (Web, pdf).

  175. V. Krishnan and H. J. Irwin, OBEs in the blind, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 134-141.
    (Web, pdf).

  176. I. Kungurtsev, Which Comes First: Consciousness or Aspartate Receptors?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 55-57.
    This paper is a critique of Karl Jansen's hypothesis that near-death and ketamine experiences are caused by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. An assumption that consciousness and its alterations are merely the product of neuronal activity is only one of many possible beliefs about reality. An alternative, which can be verified through one's own direct experience, is that consciousness is always a subject and body is only its object. The objects come and go; consciousness remains., (Web, pdf).

  177. C. Lai, T. Kao, M. Wu, S. Chiang, C. Chang, C. Lu, C. Yang, C. Yang, H. Chang, and S. Lin, Impact of near-death experiences on dialysis patients: a multicenter collaborative study, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 50 (2007), pp. 124-132.
    45 patients had 51 NDEs. Mean NDE score was 11.9 (95/ confidence interval, 11.0 to 12.9). Out-of-body experience was found in 51.0% of NDEs. Purported precognitive visions, awareness of being dead, and ``tunnel experience'' were uncommon (<10%). Compared with the no-NDE group, subjects in the NDE group were more likely to be women and younger at life-threatening events. Both frequency of participation in religious ceremonies and pious religious activity correlated significantly with NDE score in patients with NDEs (P <0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). The NDE group reported being kinder to others (P = 0.04) and more motivated (P = 0.02) after their life-threatening events than the no-NDE group., (pdf).

  178. R. Lange, B. Greyson, and J. Houran, A Rasch scaling validation of a `core'near-death experience, British Journal of Psychology, 95 (2004), pp. 161-177.
    For those with true near-death experiences (NDEs), Greyson's (1983, 1990) NDE Scale satisfactorily fits the Rasch rating scale model, thus yielding a unidimensional measure with interval-level scaling properties. With increasing intensity, NDEs reflect peace, joy and harmony, followed by insight and mystical or religious experiences, while the most intense NDEs involve an awareness of things occurring in a different place or time. The semantics of this variable are invariant across True-NDErs' gender, current age, age at time of NDE, and latency and intensity of the NDE, thus identifying NDEs as `core' experiences whose meaning is unaffected by external variables, regardless of variations in NDEs' intensity. Signficant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between True-NDErs and other respondent groups, mostly revolving around the differential emphasis on paranormal/mystical/religious experiences vs. standard reactions to threat. The findings further suggest that False-Positive respondents reinterpret other profound psychological states as NDEs. Accordingly, the Rasch validation of the typology proposed by Greyson (1983) also provides new insights into previous research, including the possibility of embellishment over time (as indicated by the finding of positive, as well as negative, latency effects) and the potential roles of religious affiliation and religiosity (as indicated by the qualitative differences surrounding paranormal/mystical/religious issues)., (Web, pdf).

  179. B. Lanning, Book Review: The Division of Consciousness: The Secret Afterlife of the Human Psyche, by Peter Novak. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, 1997, 258 pp, 14.95, pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 179-181.
    (Web, pdf).

  180. S. M. Leighton, God and the god-image: An extended reflection, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 233-246.
    This paper examines the parallels between my anesthetic-related near-death experience and Rudolph Otto's description of numinous states. I discuss Otto's arguments about such perceptions and their implications, and explore internal numinous processes such as they might be seen through Carl Jung's psychology., (Web, pdf).

  181. M. B. Liester, Inner Communications Following the Near-Death Experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 233-248.
    Inner communications following the near-death experience (NDE) have been reported by a number of authors. Although such communications are similar in some ways to the hallucinations heard by individuals with mental illness, they differ in that their effects are predominantly positive, whereas the hallucinations in mental illness exert predominantly negative effects. This article describes three individuals who reported experiencing inner communications subsequent to their NDEs. I suggest that these inner messages may be a form of intuition, and encourage further research into this phenomenon., (Web, pdf).

  182. S. C. Litton, More on prophetic visions and the Inner Self Helper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 261-263.
    (Web, pdf).

  183. J. Long, Book Review: The Reintegration of Science and Spirituality: Subtle Matter, ``Dark Matter,''and the Science of Correspondence, by Deno Kazanis. Gainesville, FL: InstaBook, 2001, 137 pp., 14.95, pb. (Second edition published 2002 by Styra Publications, Tampa, FL.), Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 191-194.
    (Web, pdf).

  184. J. Long, The Nine Lines of Evidence, (2012), pp. 1-2.
    Research areas, as presented in the book Evidence of the Afterlife: The Science of Near-Death Experiences, by Jeffrey Long, MD. These nine lines of evidence support the reality of near-death experiences and their consistent message that there is an afterlife., (pdf).

  185. U. Lopez, A. Forster, J. Annoni, W. Habre, and I. Iselin-Chaves, Near-death experience in a boy undergoing uneventful elective surgery under general anesthesia, Pediatric Anesthesia, 16 (2005), pp. 85-88.
    Near-death experience (NDE) is a complex subjective experience, which may include affective elements such as a sense of peacefulness, paranormal components such as a sensation of floating out of the body, and a perception of being in a dark tunnel and seeing a brilliant light. It is usually reported to occur in association with a wide range of life-threatening situations, as for instance, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report on an episode of NDE that occurred in a 12-year-old boy who underwent a general anesthesia for an elective uncomplicated surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NDE in a child that has been reported in this context., (pdf).

  186. V. Luciani, Life after life-after-life, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 137-148.
    This essay is a first-person account describing the profound impact of my near-death experience (NDE). I surrendered everything in response to a spiritual mandate to do something different with my new life after the NDE. Researchers may find that such intensive responses contain credible data of interest in evaluating the question of why we have NDEs., (Web, pdf).

  187. C. R. Lundahl, Angels in near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 49-56.
    The literature on near-death experiences (NDEs) contains no substantive discussion of angels in NDEs, even though there are references to angels in several studies of these experiences. In this article I identify angels in NDEs and describe their functions in the NDE based on published NDE accounts. I conclude that angels are personages with whom the NDEr does not usually recall having previous acquaintance. Angels, serve as guides, messengers, or escorts in the NDE., (Web, pdf).

  188. C. R. Lundahl, Near-death visions of unborn children: Indications of a pre-earth life, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 123-128.
    A limited number of accounts of near-death visions that include unborn children suggest a life before birth. The unborn children in these visions have been described as spirits, as children or children but full-grown, and as residing in another world, perhaps different from the realm of the afterlife. The arrival of these children into our earthly world is similar to the departure of near-death experiencers into the other world., (Web, pdf).

  189. C. R. Lundahl, Otherworld personal future revelations in near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 171-179.
    Kenneth Ring (1982) described two kinds of precognitive visions in the near-death experience (NDE): the personal flashforward and the prophetic vision. I describe a third category, the otherworld personal future revelation (OPFR). The OPFR resembles the personal flashforward in that it previews the experiencer's personal future, but differs from the personal flash-forward in that it is delivered to the experiencer by another personage in the otherworld rather than appearing in the visual imagery of a life review. The OPFR differs from the prophetic vision in having a personal rather than planetary focus. I cite four historic accounts to illustrate major features of the OPFR: entrance into the otherworld, encounter with others who foretell the experiencer's future, and later occurrence of the foretold events., (Web, pdf).

  190. C. R. Lundahl, A Comparison of Other World Perceptions by Near-Death Experiencers and by the Marian Visionaries of Medjugorje, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 45-52.
    Near-death research has identified another world that consists of two divisions: Cities of Light and a Realm of Bewildered Spirits. In 1981, the apparition of Mary, the mother of Jesus, appeared to six young people in the village of Medjugorje, Croatia. These young visionaries were shown Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell in visions that were like watching a movie. Two of the visionaries were also physically transported to see these realms. A comparison of their observations of the other world with those of near-death experiencers (NDErs) shows a close similarity between them. The visionaries' observations provide some corroboration for the City of Light and Realm of the Bewildered Spirits elements of the NDE and suggest the possibility of a third division called Hell. Further study of frightening NDEs may reveal whether or not those NDErs who travel to a less than heavenly realm may be going to two separate places instead of one., (Web, pdf).

  191. C. R. Lundahl, Prophetic Revelations in Near-Death Experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 233-239.
    Prophetic revelations in near-death experiences (NDEs) are a fourth type of flashforwards. Prophetic revelations are similar to another type of flashforward called the prophetic vision, which was identified in 1982 by Kenneth Ring. Like prophetic visions, prophetic revelations are a phenomenon in which NDErs are given a knowledge of the earth's future; they have a global or world focus. Prophetic revelations differ from prophetic visions in that events in the earth's future are told or revealed to the NDEr by a deceased relative or some otherworld person during their NDE, rather than in a visual display, and they are less detailed. Four categories of flashforwards have now been identified. In addition to the prophetic revelation and the prophetic vision are the other flashforwards, the personal flashforward and the otherworld personal future revelation (OPFR). The major features that distinguish these different flashforwards are their focus (global or personal), method of delivery, and detail. All flashforward types occur in a small number of cases and during deep NDEs., (pdf).

  192. C. R. Lundahl and A. S. Gibson, Near-Death Studies and Modern Physics, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (2000), pp. 143-179.
    The fields of near-death studies and modern physics face common dilemmas: namely, how to account for the corroborative nature of many near-death experiences or of the anthropic disposition of the universe without allowing for some otherworldly existence and/or some guiding intelligence. Extreme efforts in both fields to explain various phenomena by contemporary scientific methods and theories have been largely unsuccessful. This paper exposes some of the principal problem areas and suggests a greater collaboration between the two fields. Specific illustrations are given where collaborative effort might be fruitful. The paper also suggests a broader perspective in performing the research, one that places greater emphasis on an otherworldly thrust in future research., (pdf).

  193. C. R. Lundahl and H. A. Widdison, Social positions in the city of light, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 231-238.
    This article describes the social positions of inhabitants in the otherworldly City of Light as reported by a limited number of Mormon near-death experiences (NDErs). These social positions included men and women and various relatives and friends, in addition to authorities or administrators, genealogists, guardians, guides, homemakers, missionaries, teachers, and students. These reports of social positions in the City of Light are similar to those described by other researchers, and are comparable to those found in our own world., (Web, pdf).

  194. L. Manley, Enchanted journeys: near-death experiences and the emergency nurse., Journal of Emergency Nursing, 22 (1996), p. 311.

  195. J. M. McDonagh, Review of Bette Furn's ``adjustment and the near-death experience'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 24-27.
    (Web, pdf).

  196. J. M. McDonagh, After the beyond: Human transformation and the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 55-57.
    (Web, pdf).

  197. J. F. McHarg, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 229-231.
    (Web, pdf).

  198. T. Metzinger, Out-of-Body Experiences as the Origin of the Concept of a'Soul', Mind and Matter, 3 (2005), pp. 57-84.
    Contemporary philosophical and scientific discussions of mind developed from a 'proto-concept of mind ',a mythical, tradition alistic, animistic and quasi-sensory theory about what it means to have a mind. It can be found in many di .erent cultures and has a semantic core corresponding to the folk-phenomenological notion of a 'soul '.It will be argued that this notion originates in accurate and truthful first-person reports about the experiential content of a special neurophenomenological state-class called 'out-of-body experiences '.They can be undergone by every human being and seem to possess a culturally invariant cluster of functional and phenomenal core properties similar to the proto-concept of mind. The common causal factor in the emergence and development of the notion of the soul and the proto-concept of mind may consist in a yet to be determined set of properties realized by the human brain, underlying the cluster of phenomenal properties described in the relevant first-person reports. This hypothesis suggests that such a neurofunctional substrate ed human beings at different times, and in widely varying cultural contexts, to postulate the existence of a soul and to begin developing a theory of mind., (pdf).

  199. T. Metzinger, Why are out-of-body experiences interesting for philosophers?, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 256-258.
    (Web, pdf).

  200. H. A. Mickel, A critique of Kellehear's transcendent society, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 123-130.
    Allan Kellehear argued that the otherworld society envisioned in near-death experiences (NDEs) is similar to utopian societies. However, his cultural analysis, based on 9 Mormon NDEs, did not reflect the diversity of near-death visions from other cultures. I suggest that these Mormon NDEs were neither as utopian as Kellehear assumed nor representative of contemporary NDE reports, and that a more complete analysis would reveal a variety of NDEs and otherworld visions reflecting the experiencers' sociocultural back-ground. Robert Bellah's model of religious evolution provides a model for charting the NDE's change over time and cultures, and allows us to differentiate the perennial features of the NDE from the transient culturally-determined ones --a first step in understanding the role of NDEs in the quest for an ideal society., (Web, pdf).

  201. J. S. Miller, A counseling approach to assist near-death experiencers: A response to Bette Furn's paper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 30-36.
    Conclusion In sum, I believe a practitioner's theoretical orientation is a necessary factor for NDErs to consider when choosing a therapist. As stated, I feel that an orientation reflecting a phenomenological, client-centered approach will encourage experiencers to find the personally relevant answers they are seeking. Additionally, it is important that that approach be conceptually clear to the clinician and be congruent with his or her value system. I agree with Furn regarding the need for practitioners to be knowledgeable about NDEs and sensitive to other spiritual and paranormal phenomena. And I believe that if by chance the practitioner is also an experiencer, then the NDEr who has chosen that clinician will have indeed come across a winning combination., (Web, pdf).

  202. J. S. Miller, The light beyond, by Raymond A. Moody, Jr. with Paul Perry, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 191-199.
    (Web, pdf).

  203. J. S. Miller, Full circle: The near-death experience and beyond, by Barbara Harris and Lionel Bascom, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 253-256.
    (Web, pdf).

  204. A. Mills, Commentary on Allan Kellehear's ``Near-death experiences and the pursuit of the ideal society'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 113-122.
    Allan Kellehear's article raised four questions for me: (1) whether the near-death experience (NDE) presents enough data about the nature of a transcendent society for it to be a useful model for earthly societies; (2) the degree to which transcendent societies have to address the practical considerations of a material society; (3) whether NDEs are projections of experiencers' cultural concepts about the nature of the transcendent realm(s); and (4) the kind of hope offered by the growing awareness of the features of Western NDEs. I address these questions by referring to transcendent realm concepts and NDEs in the anthropological literature, particularly that of the North American Indian Prophet Movement., (Web, pdf).

  205. D. Mobbs, Response to Greyson et al.: there is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16 (2012), p. 446.
    Greyson and colleagues make several arguments [1] against the proposition that near-death experiences (NDEs) can be explained on the basis of currently available neuroscientific and psychological evidence [2]. I must provide several clarifications. First, I remind the reader that our brief Science & Society article set out to examine the core features of NDEs, rather than provide an exhaustive discussion of the literature. Second the goal of our article was to present evidence that the brain can evoke `similar' experiences that are observed under more controlled and less psychologically distressing circumstances - a point explicitly made by others [3,4]. Third, given the overwhelming media coverage and non-scientific literature in favour of paranormal (i.e., beyond scientific investigation) accounts, our goal was to put forward an alternative, scientific account of NDEs. Finally, I must also make it clear that we extensively examined the extant literature and found no convincing evidence (beyond anecdotes or questionnaires) that contradicted explanations based on current neuroscientific evidence., (Web, pdf).

  206. D. Mobbs and C. Watt, There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences: how neuroscience can explain seeing bright lights, meeting the dead, or being convinced you are one of them, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15 (2011), pp. 447-449.
    Approximately 3/ of Americans declare to have had a near-death experience [1]. These experiences classically involve the feeling that one's soul has left the body, approaches a bright light and goes to another reality, where love and bliss are all encompassing. Contrary to popular belief, research suggests that there is nothing paranormal about these experiences. Instead, near- death experiences are the manifestation of normal brain function gone awry, during a traumatic, and sometimes harmless, event., (Web, pdf).

  207. R. A. Moody, Family reunions: Visionary encounters with the departed in a modern-day psychomanteum, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 83-121.
    A poignant feature of many near-death experiences is a visionary encounter with deceased loved ones. Over the centuries, researchers have sought safe ways to replicate near-death and related experiences, hoping to induce the powerful aftereffects of these events. The ancient Greeks contructed psychomanteums, or oracles of the dead, where seekers could consult spirits of the deceased. I describe a modern attempt to recreate the psychomanteum. Like near-death experiences, visionary encounters in this modern psychomanteum are experienced as real and not as hallucinatory, and have profound personal aftereffects. This novel experimental technique may permit the scientific study of phenomena that previously occurred only spontaneously and under uncontrolled circumstances., (Web, pdf).

  208. L. Morabito, Love and God in the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 65-66.
    (Web, pdf).

  209. L. L. Morris and K. Knafl, The nature and meaning of the near-death experience for patients and critical care nurses, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 139-167.
    This study was designed to develop a conceptual framework for the near-death experience (NDE), reflecting its nature and meaning for the patient and the critical care nurse. The study used naturalistic inquiry to examine the question: What is the nature and meaning of an NDE and how has it influenced the individual's view of the self, the future, and feelings and beliefs about life and death? The NDE Scale (Greyson, 1983) was used with patients and semi-structured interview guides were used with both nurses and patients to explore the NDE from a comprehensive perspective. An NDE was defined as the report of ``unusual'' recollections associated with a period of unconsciousness during either serious illness or injury, or resuscitation from a cardiac or respiratory arrest. The sample included 12 patients who experienced an NDE and 19 nurses who cared for patients who experienced NDEs. This study highlighted the emotional aspects of the NDE. Patients described how the NDE transformed their lives and nurses reported how their experiences with patients changed them personally and professionally., (pdf).

  210. M. L. Morse, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 223-228.
    (Web, pdf).

  211. M. L. Morse, Commentary on Jansen's Paper, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 59-62.
    Karl Jansen raises a fundamental and exciting question: Is humankind's consciousness the result of neuronal function, or are there extra-cerebral aspects as well? While his neurotransmitter model of near-death experiences (NDEs) is well described, I find his supporting evidence weak. Methodological differences between studies of ketamine hallucinations and near-death experiences (NDEs) raise doubts about how similar those experiences are phenomenologically. While Jansen's model has electrifying implications, the data required to support his conclusions do not yet exist., (Web, pdf).

  212. M. L. Morse, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 131-132.
    (Web, pdf).

  213. M. L. Morse and M. Olson, Scientific vs. anecdotal near-death studies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 129-134.
    (Web, pdf).

  214. M. L. Morse, D. Venecia, and J. Milstein, Near-death experiences: A neurophysiologic explanatory model, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 45-53.
    Prior hypotheses as to the etiology of near-death experiences (NDEs) have been limited to psychiatric explanations or brief discussions of endorphins as causative agents. We present a neurophysiological explanation for NDEs based on their similarities with lysergic acid-, ketamine-, and hypercapnia-induced hallucinations. We believe the core NDE is genetically imprinted and triggered by serotonergic mechanisms., (Web, pdf).

  215. T. Murphy, Near-Death Experiences in Thailand: Discussion of case histories, shaktitechnology.com, (1999), pp. 1-9.
    Several studies (Pasricha, 1986, Schorer, 1985-86) & Kellehear, 1993) have indicated that the phenomenologies of NDEs is culture- bound. The observation that the Being of Light can appear differently according to a person's expectations of what God will be like (Osis, 1975) supports the notion that a person's religion also plays a role. In this article, we will examine eleven NDEs collected in Thailand. We will argue that the phenomenology of NDEs is not determined by a person's culture, but rather reflects that person's expectations of what death will be like. These expectations are most often, though not always, derived from a person's culture. Culture-bound expectations (whether conscious or unconscious) about death are, in turn, most often, but not always, derived from it's religious traditions. NDE phenomenology is both highly individualized, and at the same time shared by many people. Culture is universal, but so are deviations from it's norms., (Web, pdf).

  216. T. Murphy, Recreating Near-Death Experiences: A Cognitive Approach, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 261-265.
    I describe a guided meditation that, when used by near-death experiencers (NDErs), recreates fragments of their NDEs. The meditation is based on Michael Persinger's neurological theory regarding the ``God Experience,'' and its success supports that theory. The present study included too few subjects to support quantitative analysis, and must be regarded as a pilot study., (Web, pdf).

  217. T. Murphy, Near-death experiences in Thailand, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 161-178.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) in Thailand do not demonstrate the episodes most noted in those collected in the West, but they do show consistent features. I argue that these features, including harbingers of death, visions of hell, the Lord of the underworld, and the benefits of making donations to Buddhist monks and temples, can be understood within the framework of beliefs and customs unique to Southeast Asia. The simplest explanation is that the phenomenology of NDEs at least in part fulfills the individuals' expectations of what they will experience at death. These expectations are most often derived from the experiencer's culture, subculture, or mix of cultures. Culture-bound expectations are, in turn, most often derived from religion. One case, quoted at length, shows features that suggest that the individual was experiencing stress as a result of living in both Thai and Chinese cultures. Although the phenomenology of Thai NDEs is at variance from those in the West, the typical episodes that appear in each seem to follow a comparable sequencing. This similarity in structure suggests that NDEs in both cultures have a common function., (pdf).

  218. T. Murphy, The Structure and Function of Near-Death Experiences: An Algorithmic Reincarnation Hypothesis, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 101-118.
    Hypothesizes that a near-death experience (NDE) is the subjective experience of having the state of consciousness in which a person experiences the last moment of his or her life being turned, in stages, into the state of consciousness experienced as the ``point of no return.''The life review this, as is interpreted as a review of the states of consciousness experienced during our lives. Our responses to reviewing our own behaviors while in specific states reinforces and classifies them into those to repeat in future lives and those to avoid. We examine a modification of the traditional doctrine of reincarnation that takes into account biological and cultural evolution. This allows an understanding of how the attributes of NDEs could have undergone selection even though all opportunities for mating have already passed at the time of death., (Web, pdf).

  219. M. Nahm and B. Greyson, Terminal Lucidity in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia and Dementia, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197 (2009), pp. 942-944.
    In this article, we present the results of a literature survey on case reports of the unexpected return of mental clarity and memory shortly before death, which we have called ``terminal lucidity.'' We focus specifically on terminal lucidity in mental disorders, of which we have found 81 case references. Of these, we were able to retrieve 49 case reports, most of which had been recorded before 1849. Thereafter, comparatively few reports of terminal lucidity have been published. Some more recent publications referred to terminal lucidity in patients suffering from schizophrenia and dementia. We draw parallels and distinctions between terminal lucidity and remissions attributable to febrile illness in neurosyphilis. We recommend in-depth studies on the psychopathology and neuropathology involved in terminal lucidity, since they might enable the development of both improved therapies and a better understanding of unresolved aspects of cognition and memory processing., (Web, pdf).

  220. V. M. Neppe, Near-death experiences: A new challenge in temporal lobe phenomenology? Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 243-248.
    (Web, pdf).

  221. R. D. Newsome, Ego, moral, and faith development in near-death experiencers: Three case studies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 73-105.
    Near-death experiencers (NDErs) commonly report shifts in basic values and attitudes, toward intensified compassion and a sense of unconditional love, sprituality, and a sense of mission, and away from materialism and competitiveness. Some researchers have suggested that these attitudinal shifts represent a new stage in human evolution, which will produce major social change. However, knowledge of these reputed NDE aftereffects has been based on NDErs' subjective reports, unverified by objective measures. This study examined relationships between three NDErs' levels of moral, ego, and faith development, as measured by standardized instruments, and extensive qualitative data describing their NDEs and personal attributes. The results suggest that currently available instruments, designed to measure the lower self, may not reflect the awakening to a transpersonal plane of functioning that follows an NDE., (Web, pdf).

  222. O. Nichelson, Bringing the NDE home, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 257-259.
    (Web, pdf).

  223. P. Novak, Division of the Self: Life After Death and the Binary Soul Doctrine, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 143-189.
    Ancient Egyptians believed that each individual had two souls, a ba and a ka, which separated at death unless steps were taken to prevent this division. Egyptian descriptions of the ba and ka are strikingly similar to modern scientists' descriptions of the conscious and unconscious halves of the human psyche. Many other cultures all over the globe believed in two souls, one like the conscious, the other like the unconscious, which separated at death. Many cultures held that one soul would go on to reincarnate, while the other would become trapped in a dreamlike netherworld. Some believed that this division could be prevented or reversed, while others saw the division as being inevitable. The two stages of near-death experiences, a detached, objective, and dispassionate ``black void''followed by a subjective, relationship-oriented, and emotionally intense ``realm of light,''reflect the distinctions between the conscious mind and the unconscious mind. The ``darkness''stage seems to be experienced exclusively through the conscious half of the psyche, while the ``light''stage seems to be experienced exclusively through the unconscious, as if the two were operating independently during these episodes. A similarly polarized dichotomy can be found in the accounts of reincarnation, of the Realm of Bewildered Souls, of the void between lives, of the behavior of ghosts and apparitions, and in statements about the afterlife by parapsychologists. The ``Binary Soul Doctrine''hypothesis, that the two halves of the psyche separate after death, offers a consistent explanation for these afterlife phenomena., (Web, pdf).

  224. R. Noyes, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 249-250.
    (Web, pdf).

  225. D. S. Oderberg, Survivalism, Corruptionism, and Mereology, European Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, 4 (2012), pp. 1-26.
    Corruptionism is the view that following physical death, the human being ceases to exist (until Resurrection) but their soul persists in the afterlife. Survivalism holds that both the human being and their soul persist in the afterlife, as distinct entities, with the soul constituting the human. Each position has its defenders, most of whom appeal both to metaphysical considerations and to the authority of St Thomas Aquinas. Corruptionists claim that survivalism violates a basic principle of any plausible mereology, while survivalists tend to reject the principle, though without as much detail as one would like. In this paper I examine both the key exegetical issues and the mereological question, arguing (i) that Aquinas cannot be shown to have supported the principle in question, and (ii) that the principle should be rejected on independent grounds. If correct, some key planks in support of survivalism are established, with others to await further examination., (pdf).

  226. K. Osis, Return from death: An exploration of the near-death experience, by Margot Grey, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 183-189.
    (Web, pdf).

  227. B. Österman, N. Grossman, and J. T. Green, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 61-66.
    (Web, pdf).

  228. L. S. Overney, S. Arzy, and O. Blanke, Deficient mental own-body imagery in a neurological patient with out-of-body experiences due to cannabis use, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 228-235.
    In the present work, we report repeated out-of-body experiences (OBEs) in a patient with tetraplegia and severe somatosensory loss due to multiple sclerosis and predominant involvement of the cervical spinal cord. OBEs were experienced on a daily basis and induced by cannabis treatment that was started for severe spasticity with painful cramps and cloni. In order to investigate the link between OBEs and mental own-body imagery, the patient was asked to imagine himself in the position and visual perspective that is generally reported during OBEs, using front- and back-facing schematic human stimuli. Performance was measured before and after cannabis consumption. First, our data reveal that the patient was less accurate for back-facing than front-facing stimuli. This was found before and after cannabis consumption and is the opposite pattern to what is generally observed in healthy participants and in our control subjects (who did not use cannabis). We refer to this as lesion effect and argue that this relative facilitation for stimuli reflecting the position and visual perspective that is generally reported during OBEs might be due to recurrent and spontaneous own-body transformations during the patient's frequent OBEs. Secondly, we found a cannabis effect, namely a performance improvement in the back-facing condition while performance in the front-facing condition remained unchanged, after cannabis administration. We argue that cannabis administration may interfere with own-body imagery when reflecting the actual body position and only when associated with brain damage. Based on these data we propose an extended neurological model for own-body illusions including multisensory and sensorimotor mechanisms, cannabis consumption, and cortical and subcortical processing., (Web, pdf).

  229. J. C. Pace and D. L. Drumm, The phantom leaf effect and its implications for near-death and out-of-body experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1992), pp. 233-240.
    The phantom leaf effect seen in Kirlian photography may help researchers better understand near-death and out-of-body experience. While the process responsible for the phantom leaf effect is unknown, variations of Rupert Sheldrake's morphogenetic field theory offer three explanations for this phenomenon. Each of these variations has different implications for near-death and out-of-body experiences., (Web, pdf).

  230. J. P. Pandarakalam, Doctors' religious beliefs influence their views on end of life care, British Medical Journal News, (2010), pp. 1-2.
    Medical scientists who are non-religious and espouse a strict biological model of the mind tend to care less for prolonging life is a serious statement. Theoretically this could be true of mental health professionals who are sceptical about post mortem existence while they deal with suicidal behaviour. The age-old belief in human spiritual existence has weakened with the growth reductionist views of mind. Right from the beginning of their medical education, medical professionals are exposed to reductionist models of mind and consequently, the concept of spirituality becomes inappropriate in their thinking. The concept of a Supreme Being becomes irrelevant if there is no life after death. After completing the anatomy dissection and physiology classes, I used to wonder where the soul in all these is. For mainstream scientists to accept survival after physical extinction and spirituality, they have to abandon a neutral position on the fence, metaphorically launching themselves on to the side of the following: a. The possibility of some form of limited communication between discarnate beings and living beings. b. The existence of an imperceptible discarnate dimension. c. The existence of a non-physical component that is in union with brain and body - a non-reductionist model of mind. d, The existence of a Divine Intelligence., (Web, pdf).

  231. J. P. Pandarakalam, A Search for the Truth of Near Death Experiences, (2012), pp. 1-20.
    The existence of so-called Near Death Experiences (NDEs), in which dying people report having mystical sensations before being resuscitated, is now widely accepted by cognitive scientists as a respectable research idea. Over the years, various explanations have been put forward for the positive variety of NDEs. Early investigators attached the importance of the transcendental aspects of this experience but these views were challenged by biological explanations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the different interpretations from a biological and parapsychological perspective as well as in the light of the newer observations of particle physics. Selective survey of the may also help to form a framework for future research. Features of cluster analysis and a case example are given. Cultural differences are noted. Biological and transcendental interpretations have obvious pitfalls. An intermediate position is advanced here - that the NDE is a combination of individual hallucination and true extra sensory perception. The current models of mind are inadequate to explain NDEs. Study of NDEs is useful for a deeper understanding of mind. NDEs can be better explained if the existence of an extra-cerebral component is conceptualised in association with the brain even though this non-physical aspect is unobservable with the present day instrumentation., (Web, pdf).

  232. A. Paquette, NDE Implications from a Group of Spontaneous Long-Distance Veridical OBEs, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 26 (2012), pp. 791-824.
    The case for veridical out-of-body experiences (OBEs) reported in near-death experiences might be strengthened by accounts of well-documented veridical OBEs not occurring near death. However, such accounts are not easily found in the literature, particularly accounts involving events seen at great distances from the percipient. In this article, I seek to mitigate this paucity of literature using my collection of dream journal OBE cases. Out of 3,395 records contained in the database as of June 15, 2012, 226 had demonstrated veridicality. This group divides into examples of precognition, after-death communications, and OBEs. Of the OBEs, 92 are veridical. The documentation involved is stronger than is normally encountered in spontaneous cases, because it is made prior to confirmation attempts, all confirmations are contemporaneous, and the number of verified records is large relative to the total number of similar cases in the literature. This database shows that NDE-related veridical OBEs share important characteristics of veridical OBEs that are not part of an NDE. Because the OBEs are similar, but the conditions are not, skeptical arguments that depend on specific physical characteristics of the NDE--such as the use of drugs and extreme physical distress--are weakened. Other arguments against purported psi elements found in veridical OBEs are substantially weakened by the cases presented in this article., (pdf).

  233. S. Parnia, Do reports of consciousness during cardiac arrest hold the key to discovering the nature of consciousness?, Medical hypotheses, 69 (2007), pp. 933-937.
    Perhaps the biggest challenge facing neuroscience at the dawn of the 21st century is understanding the relationship between mind, consciousness and the brain. Editorials in recent years have highlighted the difficulties faced by cognitive neuroscience in attempting to answer questions regarding the nature, as well as the mechanism by which subjective experiences and our sense of consciousness may arise through neuronal processes. Current scientific views regarding the origin of consciousness vary widely and range from an `epiphenomenon' arising from neuronal networks, to neuronal quantum processes, to a separate undiscovered scientific entity. Although there has been a lack of experimental studies to test these theories, recent studies have indicated that the study of the human mind during cardiac arrest may hold the key to solving the mystery of consciousness. Four published prospective studies of cardiac arrest survivors have demonstrated that paradoxically human mind and consciousness may continue to function during cardiac arrest. This is despite the well demonstrated finding that cerebral functioning as measured by electrical activity of the brain ceases during cardiac arrest, thus raising the possibility that human mind and consciousness may continue to function in the absence of brain function. In this article the broad theories for the causation of consciousness are reviewed as well as a novel method to study consciousness during cardiac arrest. This may provide a unique experimental method to determine the nature of human mind and consciousness as well as its relationship with the brain., (pdf).

  234. S. Parnia, D. Waller, R. Yeates, and P. Fenwick, A qualitative and quantitative study of the incidence, features and aetiology of near death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors, Resuscitation, 48 (2001), pp. 149-156.
    Aim: To carry out a prospective study of cardiac arrest survivors to understand the qualitative features as well as incidence, and possible aetiology of near death experiences (NDEs) in this group of patients. Method: All survivors of cardiac arrests during a 1 year period were interviewed within a week of their arrest, regarding memories of their unconscious period. Reported memories were assessed by the Greyson NDE Scale. The postulated role of physiological, psychological and transcendental factors were studied. Physiological parameters such as oxygen status were extracted from the medical notes. Patients' religious convictions were documented in the interviews and hidden targets were used to test the transcendental theories on potential out of body claims. Those with memories were compared to those without memories. Results: 11.1/ of 63 survivors reported memories. The majority had NDE features. There appeared to be no differences on all physiological measured parameters apart from partial pressure of oxygen during the arrest which was higher in the NDE group. Conclusions: Memories are rare after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. The majority of those that are reported have features of NDE and are pleasant. The occurrence of NDE during cardiac arrest raises questions about the possible relationship between the mind and the brain. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand the aetiology and true significance of NDE., (pdf).

  235. D. S. Paulson, The Near-Death Experience: An Integration of Cultural, Spiritual, and Physical Perspectives, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 13-25.
    The near-death experience (NDE) has been studied extensively from two conflicting perspectives: that the NDE is a glimpse into an after-death state and that it is the result of a dying brain. Of late a third perspective has emerged, that of NDEs being culturally determined. I propose an integrated model in which all three perspectives are viewed with equal weight., (Web, pdf).

  236. P. Pearsall, G. E. R. Schwartz, and L. G. S. Russek, Changes in Heart Transplant Recipients That Parallel the Personalities of Their Donors, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 191-206.
    It is generally assumed that learning is restricted to neural and immune systems. However, the systemic memory hypothesis predicts that all dynamical systems that contain recurrent feedback loops store information and energy to various degrees. Sensitive transplant patients may evidence personal changes that parallel the history of their donors. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether changes following heart transplant surgery parallel the history of the donors. We conducted open-ended interviews with volunteer transplant recipients, recipient families or friends, and donor families or friends, in hospitals in various parts of the country. Patients included ten recipients who had received heart or heart-lung transplants. Main outcome measures were transcripts of audiotaped interviews quoted verbatim. Two to 5 parallels per case were observed between changes following surgery and the histories of the donors. Parallels included changes in food, music, art, sexual, recreational, and career preferences, as well as specific instances of perceptions of names and sensory experiences related to the donors. The incidence of recipient awareness of personal changes in cardiac transplant patients is unknown. The effects of the immunosuppressant drugs, stress of the surgery, and statistical coincidence are insufficient to explain the findings. We suggest that cellular memory, possibly systemic memory, is a plausible explanation for these parallels., (Web, pdf).

  237. J. Pennachio, Near-death experiences and self-transformation, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 162-168.
    The near-death experience (NDE) may be one of many mechanisms that may activate renewal and transformation, fundamental tendencies of the psyche. An examination of three successive NDEs in one individual suggests that such alterations of consciousness weaken ego control and foster transcendence of the ego, promoting transformation and regeneration., (Web, pdf).

  238. C. M. Perry, Assessment of clergy knowledge and attitudes, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 129-129.
    (Web, pdf).

  239. C. M. Perry, Assessment of clergy knowledge and attitudes, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 129-129.
    (Web, pdf).

  240. C. M. Perry, Book Review The Truth in the Light: An Investigation of Over 300 Near-Death Experiences, by Peter Fenwick and Elizabeth Fenwick. New York, NY: Berkley Books, 1997, x + 278 pp., 12.00, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 129-132.
    (Web, pdf).

  241. C. M. Perry, C. R. Lundahl, H. A. Widdison, C. R. Lundahl, and L. W. Bailey, Millennarian Prophecies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 53-66.
    (Web, pdf).

  242. M. A. Persinger, Modern neuroscience and near-death experiences: Expectancies and implications. comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 233-239.
    (Web, pdf).

  243. M. Potts, Sensory experiences in near death experiences and the Thomistic view of the soul, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 49 (2001), pp. 85-100.

  244. M. Potts, The evidential value of near-death experiences for belief in life after death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 233-258.
    In this paper, I explore the issue of what evidential value near-death experiences (NDEs) offer for belief in life after death. I survey the major positions on this issue, ranging from writers who believe that NDEs already offer convincing evidence for life after death, to physicalists who believe that they offer, at best, a very weak case. I argue that the present NDE evidence does suggest the possibility of life after death; however, such evidence is not yet overpowering or convincing. However, I go on to argue that NDEs do offer persuasive evidence for life after death for the individual who has the NDE. I end by suggesting that further research should be done on the most impressive type of NDE evidence for life after death, veridical perceptions during an NDE., (Web, pdf).

  245. D. Punzak, The use of near-death phenomena in therapy, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 173-182.
    Though near-death studies have yielded few practical applications, some psychotherapists have used insights from near-death experiences (NDEs) to treat a variety of problems. Using hypnosis, relaxation methods, or electric shock to initiate a conversation with a purported spirit ``possessing'' the patient, the therapist persuades the spirit to join others in a land of ethereal beauty and light similar to the transcendental realm of an NDE, or simply to go directly into the light. Such techniques are treated as a culmination of the spirit's NDE; that is, the purported possessing spirits had their original death experiences terminated prior to entering the transcendental stage, but instead of returning to their own bodies, they appear to have invaded the bodies of others. Some persons may leave themselves open to invasion through substance abuse or occult practices., (Web, pdf).

  246. D. Punzak, Prophetic visions and the ``inner self helper'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 193-196.
    (Web, pdf).

  247. L. S. Rhodes, The near-death experience: Private or public?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 71-75.
    This editorial contrasts the private, personal near-death experience with the public concept of the experience, and finds important messages for humanity that are common to both., (Web, pdf).

  248. L. S. Rhodes, NDEs and the pursuit of the ideal society, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 63-64.
    (Web, pdf).

  249. L. S. Rhodes, Book Review: Visitations from the Afterlife: True Stories of Love and Healing, by Lee Lawson. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 2000, 224 pp, 22.00 hb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 129-129.
    (Web, pdf).

  250. L. S. Rhodes, More on Psychomanteum Experimentation, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 192-195.
    (Web, pdf).

  251. L. S. Rhodes, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2003), pp. 195-196.
    (Web, pdf).

  252. K. Ring, Guest editorial: Paradise is paradise: Reflections on psychedelic drugs, mystical experience, and the near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 138-148.
    (Web, pdf).

  253. K. Ring, Prophetic visions in 1988: A critical reappraisal, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 4-18.
    This paper reviews the research into a specific aspect of neardeath experiences (NDEs): the prophetic vision (PV). PVs are subjectively compelling flashforwards of planetary-wide cataclysms and eventual regeneration that sometimes occur during or in the immediate aftermath of an NDE. Previous research has shown that the most frequently mentioned year for the culmination of the geophysical calamities foreseen in PVs was 1988. I argue that PVs should be understood as manifestations of a collective prophetic impulse that historically tends to arise during periods of cultural crisis. PVs are thus expressions of the felt need for cultural renewal and therefore should not be taken literally as prognostic of drastic physical changes on Earth., (Web, pdf).

  254. K. Ring, The return from silence: A study of near-death experiences, by D. Scott Rogo, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 111-117.
    (Web, pdf).

  255. K. Ring, Amazing grace: The near-death experience as a compensatory gift, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 11-39.
    This paper illustrates the apparently providential timing and the healing character of near-death experiences (NDEs) and NDE-like episodes, through four case histories of persons whose lives, prior to their experiences, were marked by deep anguish and a sense of hopelessness. Spiritually, such case histories suggest the intervention of a guiding intelligence that confers a form of ``amazing grace'' on the recipient. Methodologically, these reports point to the importance of taking into account the person's life history as a context for understanding the full significance of NDEs and similar awakening experiences. The article ends with a retrospective account of a childhood NDE in which ``the big secret'' of these experiences is disclosed., (Web, pdf).

  256. K. Ring, Premonitions of what could have been, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 69-71.
    (Web, pdf).

  257. K. Ring, Whole in one: The near-death experience and the ethic of interconnectedness, by David Lorimer, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1992), pp. 241-245.
    (Web, pdf).

  258. K. Ring, Book Review Children of the Light: The Near-Death Experiences of Children, by Cherie Sutherland. New York, NY: Bantam, 1995, 199 pp + xi, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 127-132.
    (Web, pdf).

  259. K. Ring, Religious Wars in the NDE Movement: Some Personal Reflections on Michael Sabom's Light & Death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (2000), pp. 215-244.
    After a short personal glance at the early days of the field of near-death studies, I offer an ``open letter'' to Michael Sabom in response to his book, Light & Death (Sabom, 1998). This letter is in effect both a reply to certain criticisms Sabom has made of my work and an attempt to make public certain significant changes in my own view of near-death experiences (NDEs) since the publication of Heading Toward Omega (Ring, 1984), particularly in regard to their being a catalyst for higher consciousness. The second part of this essay presents a personal perspective on the ideological role of religion in the NDE movement, which I see as corrupting the original vision that prompted the formation of the field of near-death studies. I end with an ecumenical call for a return to the values of nontheologically driven inquiry with which near-death studies began., (Web, pdf).

  260. K. Ring and S. Cooper, Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind: A Study of Apparent Eyeless Vision, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 101-147.
    This article reports the results of an investigation into near-death and out-of-body experiences in 31 blind respondents. The study sought to address three main questions: (1) whether blind individuals have near-death experiences (NDEs) and, if so, whether they are the same as or different from those of sighted persons; (2) whether blind persons ever claim to see during NDEs and out-of-body experiences (OBEs); and (3) if such claims are made, whether they can ever be corroborated by reference to independent evidence. Our findings revealed that blind persons, including those blind from birth, do report classic NDEs of the kind common to sighted persons; that the great preponderance of blind persons claim to see during NDEs and OBEs; and that occasionally claims of visually-based knowledge that could not have been obtained by normal means can be independently corroborated. We present and evaluate various explanations of these findings before arriving at an interpretation based on the concept of transcendental awareness., (Web, pdf).

  261. K. Ring and S. Cooper, Near-death and out-of-body experiences in the blind: A study of apparent eyeless vision, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 101-147.
    This article reports the results of an investigation into near-death and out-of-body experiences in 31 blind respondents. The study sought to address three main questions: (1) whether blind individuals have near- death experiences (NDEs) and, if so, whether they are the same as or diffrent from those of sighted persons; (2) whether blind persons ever claim to see during NDEs and out-of-body experiences (OBEs); and (3) if such claims are made, whether they can ever be corroborated by reference to independent evidence. Our findings revealed that blind persons, including those blind from birth, do report classic NDEs of the kind common to sighted persons; that the great preponderance of blind persons claim to see during NDEs and OBEs; and that occasionally claims of visually-based knowledge that could not have been obtained by normal means can be independently corroborated. We present and evaluate various explanations of these findings before arriving at an interpretation based on the concept of transcendental awareness., (pdf).

  262. K. Ring and M. Lawrence, Further evidence for veridical perception during near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 223-229.
    We briefly survey research designed to validate alleged out-of-body perceptions during near-death experiences. Most accounts of this kind that have surfaced since Michael Sabom's work are unsubstantiated self-reports or, as in claims of visual perception of blind persons, completely undocumented or fictional, but there have been some reports that were corroborated by witnesses. We briefly present and discuss three new cases of this kind., (Web, pdf).

  263. K. Ring and C. J. Rosing, The omega project: An empirical study of the NDE-prone personality, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 211-239.
    Seventy-four near-death experiencers (NDErs) and 54 persons interested in near-death experiences (NDEs) participated in a mail questionnaire survey to assess the role of psychological factors in influencing susceptibility to NDEs and to measure aftereffects stemming from such events. NDErs, while not more fantasy-prone than control subjects, reported greater sensitivity to nonordinary realities as children and a higher incidence of child abuse and trauma. NDErs also scored higher on a measure of psychological dissociation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the concept of an NDE-prone personality. In addition to substantial shifts in values and beliefs, NDErs described far more psychophysical changes, including symptoms of kundalini activation, following their NDEs than did controls. We then discuss the implications of these findings with respect to their possible significance for human transformation and the emergence of a more highly evolved human being, the Omega Prototype., (Web, pdf).

  264. T. Rivas, is it rational to extrapolate from the Presence of Consciousness during a Flat EEG to Survival of Consciousness After death?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 29 (2010), pp. 355-361.
    A few months ago, I read your review of Jeffrey Long's important publication, Evidence of the Afterlife, for Noetic Now of the Institute for Noetic Sciences (Holden, 2010). Although you have done an excellent job discussing his book, there is one specific idea about which I probably disagree with you., (pdf).

  265. E. Rodin, Comments on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 255-259.
    (Web, pdf).

  266. D. S. Rogo, An experimentally induced NDE, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 257-260.
    (Web, pdf).

  267. S. M. Rosen, Comments on ``Electromagnetic Radiation and the Afterlife'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 119-121.
    (Web, pdf).

  268. D. Rousseau, Near-Death Experiences and the Mind-Body Relationship: A Systems-Theoretical Perspective, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 29 (2011), pp. 399-435.
    (Web, pdf).

  269. D. Rousseau, Physicalism, Christianity and the Near-Death Experience: An essay review of Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences: Brain-state Phenomena or Glimpses of Immortality? by Michael Marsh, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 75 (2011), pp. 225-234.
    OBEs and NDEs are important phenomena pertinent to the debates about the mind-body relationship and the survival of consciousness beyond bodily death. The formal study of Near-Death Experiences started only in 1975 with Raymond Moody's ground-breaking book, Life after Life (Moody, 1975), but it has since mushroomed into a huge field of research that is now a subject of active interest in a wide range of disciplines, including Philosophy (e.g. Lund, 2009), Religious Studies (e.g. Fox, 2003), Anthropology (e.g. Shushan, 2009), Anomalistic Psychology (e.g. Cardeña et al., 2000, chap.10), Parapsychology (e.g. Parker, 2001), Phenomenology (e.g. Murray etal., 2009), Cardiology (Parnia et al., 2001), Neuroscience (Greyson, 2007) and Counselling (Nouri, 2008)., (pdf).

  270. J. C. Saavedra-Aguilar and J. S. Gómez-Jeria, A neurobiological model for near-death experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 205-222.
    The authors present a neurobiological model for near-death experiences (NDEs) in an attempt to correlate the biological and psychological domains. This model is based on temporal lobe dysfunction, hypoxia/ischemia, stress, and neuropeptide/neurotransmitter imbalance. They describe and discuss the fundamental contribution of the language system in the construction of verbal reports of NDEs. This model could be seen as a complement to other explanatory domains., (Web, pdf).

  271. J. C. Saavedra-Aguilar and J. S. Gómez-Jeria, Response to commentaries on ``A neurobiological model for near-death experiences'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 265-272.
    (Web, pdf).

  272. M. Sabom, Response to Gracia Fay Ellwood's ``Religious Experience, Religious Worldviews, and Near-Death Studies'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 23-44.
    After a brief glance at ``religious wars'' that now embroil the field of near-death studies, I respond to Gracia Fay Ellwood's commentary on Light & Death (Sabom, 1998), in which she alleges serious problems with my discussion of Raymond Moody's research, my views on the psychic and the occult, my use of the Bible as an authoritative document, my research methodology, and my definition of Christianity., (Web, pdf).

  273. M. Sabom, Response to Kenneth Ring's ``Religious Wars in the NDE Movement: Some Personal Reflections on Michael Sabom's Light & Death'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (2000), pp. 245-271.
    This article responds to 15 excerpts from Kenneth Ring's paper that question the accuracy and integrity of Light & Death (Sabom, 1998)., (Web, pdf).

  274. W. S. Sabom, Book review, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 258-263.
    (Web, pdf).

  275. W. S. Sabom, Life after death, by Tom Harpur, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 181-185.
    (Web, pdf).

  276. J. Sahlman and M. Norton, The Meaning and Intensity of the Near-Death Experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 101-110.
    This is the second in a three-part study exploring the hypothes that near-death experiences (NDErs) assign the meaning of the NDE by using causal (effect) and semantic (affect) attributions. To test this hypothesis, 32 spontaneous verbal accounts of NDEs were analyzed. Each statement comprising the account was coded and classified according to the six attributional types in the Norton-Sahlman matrices of attributional classification. On the bases of these findings, we conclude that NDErs abstract the most significant aspects of meaning from their experiences by the use of attributions expressing the purposes of the experience and the intentions of the participants. Second, the meaning and intensity of the experience derives from attributions of both effect (causality) and affective significance: the assignment of subjective meaning to objects and events (affect). Third, the findings demonstrate that there are significant changes in NDErs' overt and affective states, reinforcing our argument that meaning and intensity of the NDE is a function of how the experiencer assigns causation, in addition to the affective significance that the experiencer places on the events constituting the NDE., (pdf).

  277. M. T. Schaefer, J. B. Geraci, L. S. Rhodes, and S. J. Blackmore, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 55-64.
    (Web, pdf).

  278. N. Schnaper and H. L. Panitz, Near-death experiences: Perceptionis reality, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 97-104.
    The authors propose three etiologies responsible for the neardeath experience, which they refer to as an altered state of consciousness: physiologic, pharmacologic, and psychologic. They recommend research to determine what developmental factors influence the emotionality of the experience and how in-depth understanding can be used to provide better patient care., (Web, pdf).

  279. M. Schroeter-Kunhardt, H. Knoblauch, P. M. H. Atwater, and P. Novak, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 59-72.
    (Web, pdf).

  280. J. Schwaninger, P. R. Eisenberg, K. B. Schechtman, and A. N. Weiss, A Prospective Analysis of Near-Death Experiences in Cardiac Arrest Patients, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2002), pp. 215-232.
    The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the frequency of near-death experiences (NDEs) in patients suffering a cardiac arrest, to characterize these experiences, and to assess their impact on psychosocial and spiritual attitudes. We prospectively evaluated all patients who suffered a cardiac arrest at Barnes-Jewish Hospital from April 1991 through February 1994, excluding those in the surgical intensive care unit, using a scale designed to specify criteria for NDEs, a recorded interview regarding the experience, an experience rating form, and a follow-up questionnaire regarding psychosocial attitudinal life changes. Of the 174 patients who suffered a cardiac arrest, 55 patients survived, of whom 30 patients were interviewable. Of those 30 patients interviewed, seven (23 percent) had a NDE, and four others (13 percent) reported an NDE during a prior life-threatening illness. The experiences were most frequently characterized by ineffability, peacefulness, painlessness, lack of fear, detachment from the body, and no sense of time or space. Significant differences were noted in the follow-up psychosocial assessment between patients who experienced an NDE and those who did not with regard to personal understanding of life and self, attitudes toward others, and changes in social customs and religious/spiritual beliefs. Of importance, patients reported it was beneficial to receive psychosocial support before hospital discharge after having an NDE. The results suggest that NDEs are fairly common in cardiac arrest survivors. The experiences consisted of a number of core characteristics and changed psychological, social, and spiritual awareness over both the short and long term., (Web, pdf).

  281. W. J. Serdahely, Guest editorial: Why near-death experiences intrigue Us, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1989), pp. 149-153.
    (Web, pdf).

  282. W. J. Serdahely, A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 123-131.
    (Web, pdf).

  283. W. J. Serdahely, A comparison of retrospective accounts of childhood near-death experiences with contemporary pediatric near-death experience accounts, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 219-224.
    I compared five childhood near-death experiences (NDEs) reported by adults and another five NDEs reported by minors, in terms of Ring's five NDE stages, Greyson's four NDE components, Moody and Perry's 12 NDE traits, Sabom's 16 general characteristics, and Gallup and Proctor's 10 basic positive experiences. In this combined pool of 47 NDE characteristics (which were interdependent), only two relating to time sense showed significant differences between the adults' retrospective reports of childhood NDEs and the children's contemporary NDE reports, and that number of differences would be expected by chance. This study therefore supports the claims of previous researchers that adults' retrospective reports of childhood NDEs are not embellished or distorted., (Web, pdf).

  284. W. J. Serdahely, Were some shamans near-death experiencers first?, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 255-257.
    (Web, pdf).

  285. W. J. Serdahely, Similarities between near-death experiences and multiple personality disorder, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 19-38.
    In this paper I compare the phenomenology of near-death experiences to that of multiple personality disorder. The comparison reveals a number of similarities, including out-of-body experiences, the transcendental environment, encounter with the higher self, possible temporal lobe involvement, and antecedent child abuse. Rather than being disparate and unrelated experiences, I suggest that the near-death experience and multiple personality disorder may be variants of the same basic phenomenological pattern., (Web, pdf).

  286. W. J. Serdahely, A. Drenk, and J. Serdahely, What carers need to understand about the near-death experience., Geriatric nursing (New York, NY), 9 (1988), p. 238.
    Helping people talk about their NDEs will add to existing knowledge and increase understanding., (pdf).

  287. W. J. Serdahely and B. A. Walker, The near-death experience of a nonverbal person with congenital quadriplegia, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 91-96.
    This article describes the near-death experience (NDE) a 39-year-old man born with severe spastic quadriplegia had when he was two and one-half years old. Nonverbal because of cerebral palsy, the man was able to communicate about his experience after he heard a therapist talking to another person about NDEs. The man experienced a fairly typical NDE and has had seven subsequent out-of-body experiences, the latter hypothesized as temporary relief from his physical pain resulting from muscular spasticity., (Web, pdf).

  288. P. Sergo, Going Out with a Bang, Scientific American Mind, (2010).
    People who are resuscitated from near death often report strange sensory phenomena, such as memories ``flashing before their eyes.'' Now a rare assessment of brain activity just before death offers clues about why such experiences occur. To read this article in full you will, (Web, pdf).

  289. J. Slawinski, Electromagnetic radiation and the afterlife, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 79-94.
    The question of survival of bodily death is often considered to be beyond contemporary scientific methods and conceptual categories. However, recent research into spontaneous radiations from living systems suggests a scientific foundation for the ancient association between light and life, and a biophysical hypothesis of the conscious self that could survive death of the body. All living organisms emit low-intensity light; at the time of death, that radiation is ten to 1,000 times stronger than that emitted under normal conditions. This ``deathflash'' is independent of the cause of death, and reflects in intensity and duration the rate of dying. The vision of intense light reported in near-death experiences may be related to this deathflash, which may hold an immense amount of information. The electromagnetic field produced by necrotic radiation, containing energy, internal structure, and information, may permit continuation of consciousness beyond the death of the body., (Web, pdf).

  290. J. Slawinski, Response to commentaries on ``Electromagnetic Radiation and The Afterlife'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 127-133.
    (Web, pdf).

  291. R. H. Smit and T. Rivas, Rejoinder to ``Response to `Corroboration of the Dentures Anecdote Involving Veridical Perception in a Near-Death Experience' '', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 28 (2010), pp. 193-205.
    n this article we rejoin Gerald Woerlee's response in this issue to Smit's (2008) article, ``Corroboration of the Dentures Anecdote Involving Veridical Perception in a Near-Death Experience.'' We show the untenability of his claim that the man whose dentures were lost before his resuscitation in the hospital was initiated had been conscious virtually all the way from the moment he was found in the meadow up to his transport to the hospital's cardiac care unit. Also, we question Woerlee's claim that the patient constructed an accurate men-tal picture of objects and persons in the resuscitation room simply by listening to the sounds caused by the actions around his body. In all, we question Woerlee's materialistic explanations of the out-of-body experience that occurred in this patient's near-death experience. Our conclusion is straightforward: We consider Woerlee's claims to be wrong., (pdf).

  292. C. W. Smith, Comments on ``Electromagnetic radiation and the afterlife'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 109-112.
    (Web, pdf).

  293. D. Steinmetz, Moses' ``Revelation'' on Mount Horeb as a near-death experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 199-203.
    Moses, the leader and lawgiver to the people of Israel, went through a metamorphosis during his stay in the Sinai Desert, which can be explained as a near-death or near-death-like experience. Moses saw and heard God in the burning bush and yet survived. Following his revelation, he reached a higher level of consciousness, which enabled personality changes to occur. From being a simple shepherd of his father-in-law's flock, he turned into a prophet and charismatic leader of his people., (Web, pdf).

  294. I. Stevenson, Other lives, other selves: A Jungian psychotherapist discovers past lives, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 55-57.
    (Web, pdf).

  295. C. T. Sümmerer, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 132-134.
    (Web, pdf).

  296. C. Sutherland, Psychic phenomena following near-death experiences: An Australian study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 93-102.
    This study examines the incidence of reports of psychic phenomena and associated beliefs both before and after the near-death experience (NDE). The near-death experiencers interviewed reported no more psychic phenomena before the NDE than the general population. There was a statistically significant increase following the NDE in the incidence of 14 of 15 items examined., (Web, pdf).

  297. C. Sutherland, Changes in religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices following near-death experiences: An Australian study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 21-31.
    This study examined changes in religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices in the lives of 50 near-death experiencers. I attempted to clarify whether these changes were to greater religiousness or to a deeper spirituality. I found that before the near-death experience (NDE), my respondents were no more religious or spiritually inclined than the general Australian population. Following the NDE there was a statistically significant shift towards spirituality on most items investigated., (Web, pdf).

  298. C. Sutherland, Near-death experience by proxy: A case study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 241-251.
    A recent interview with a 34-year-old man, currently serving a life sentence for murder, revealed a remarkable case of ``near-death experience by proxy''. The phenomenological features of the experience unfolded typically, with some slight variation in content. The immediate drastic changes in attitude and belief following the experience are described., (Web, pdf).

  299. Y. F. Tai, Visualizing out-of-body experience in the brain., The New England journal of medicine, 358 (2008), pp. 855-author reply 856.
    The single-subject study design used by De Ridder et al. (Nov. 1 issue)1 makes it difficult to conclude whether the changes seen on positron-emission tomography (PET) were due to out-of-body experiences or simply to the differential effects of stimulation at 3.7 V in 40-Hz burst mode as compared with other modes, a confounder that has not been controlled for. A more robust approach would be to compare this patient with a group of patients with tinnitus, but without the out-of-body experiences, receiving the same stimulation. Furthermore, the short duration of the out-of-body experiences in this patient (average duration, 17 seconds, starting within 1 second after stimulation) means that the experiences had almost disappeared by the time the scans started (10 seconds after stimulation started). Therefore, it is possible that most of the PET changes reported in this study, despite being consistent with the authors' hypothesis, were due to the effects of stimulation alone., (Web, pdf).

  300. M. Tanner, B. English, E. Durham, D. Bolaris, C. Bloomfield, C. Miller, F. Beckett, S. Cherry, C. Gibson, A. S. Gibson, and J. S. Gómez-Jeria, Letters to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 59-67.
    (Web, pdf).

  301. C. T. Tart, Six studies of out-of-body experiences, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 73-99.
    Because of confusion between science and scientism, many people react negatively to the idea of scientific investigation of near-death experiences (NDEs), but genuine science can contribute a great deal to understanding NDEs and helping experiencers integrate their experiences with everyday life. After noting how scientific investigation of certain parapsychological phenomena has established a wider world view that must take NDEs seriously, I review six studies of a basic component of the NDE, the out-of-body experience (OBE). Three of these studies found distinctive physiological correlates of OBEs in the two talented persons investigated, and one found strong evidence for veridical, paranormal perception of the OBE location. The studies using hypnosis to try to produce OBEs demonstrated the complexity of a simple model that a person's mind is actually at an out-of-body location versus merely hallucinating being out, and require us to look at how even our perception of being in our bodies is actually a complex simulation, a biopsychological virtual reality., (pdf).

  302. D. B. Terhune, The incidence and determinants of visual phenomenology during out-of-body experiences, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 236-242.
    The visual content of out-of-body experiences (OBEs) has received little attention but a number of theories of OBEs include implicit predictions regarding the determinants of this phenomenological feature. Hypnagogic imagery and unusual sleep experiences, weak synaesthesia and preference for employing object and spatial visual imagic cognitive styles were psychometrically measured along with the incidence of self-reported OBEs and the absence or presence of visual content therein, in a sample of individuals drawn from the general population. Seventy percent of individuals who had experienced an OBE reported that the experience included some form of visual content. These individuals exhibited greater scores on the measures of preference for object visual imagic cognition and weak synaesthesia than those who reported an absence of visual content during their OBE. Subsequent analysis revealed that the measure of weak synaesthesia was the stronger discriminator of the two cohorts. The results are discussed within the context of the synaesthetic model of visual phenomenology during OBEs ([Brugger, 2000] and [Irwin, 2000]). This account proposes that visual content appears during these experiences through a process of cognitive dedifferentiation in which visual hallucinations are derived from available non-visual sensory cues and that such dedifferentiation is made possible through an underlying characteristic hyperconnectivity of cortical structures regulating vestibular and visual representations of the body and those responsible for the rotation of environmental objects. Predictions derived from this account and suggestions for future research are proffered., (Web, pdf).

  303. S. L. Thaler, The Emerging Intelligence and Its Critical Look at Us, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 21-29.
    In response to Susan Gunn's editorial, I offer a less comforting but more utilitarian perspective on the life and death of artificial consciousness. Admittedly an unpopular view, it suggests that concurrence with Gunn's message represents the seeds of our own destruction, as an emerging synthetic intelligence begins to extinguish us., (Web, pdf).

  304. E. Tiberi, Extrasomatic emotions, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 149-170.
    I describe an investigation carried out in Italy on 54 subjects, half of whom had out-of-body experiences (OBEs) in good health, and half of whom had OBEs in a coma or in a state of presumed death. The focus of this research was the emotions subjects reported having felt during their OBEs. Results suggest that both in-the-body (somatic) and out-of-the-body (extrasomatic) emotions can be viewed on a continuum that shows them to be analogous or identical in both their nature and function. In light of recent theories of emotions, both the enhanced mental functioning and the subsequent existential changes connected with OBEs can be attributed to extraordinary positive emotions, theoretically triggered by the metaphysical perception of being during the OBE., (Web, pdf).

  305. S. S. Tien, Thanatoperience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 32-37.
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be seen as special cases of psychological transition. They often involve a deep transformation in the sense of self. I examine the NDE as such, according to my phase theory of transition, and I analyze an NDE with the help of that theory. I conclude that the study of NDEs may provide insight into the general psychology of transition., (Web, pdf).

  306. J. Tomlinson, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 195-203.
    (Web, pdf).

  307. J. Tomlinson, Book Review: Where God Lives: The Science of the Paranormal and How Our Brains are Linked to the Universe, by Melvin Morse and Paul Perry. New York, NY: Cliff Street Books, 2000, 256 pp., 22.00, hb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 47-54.
    (Web, pdf).

  308. S. W. Twemlow, Clinical approaches to the out-of-body experience, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 29-43.
    The author reviews aspects of the out-of-body experience (OBE) related to psychic experiences and personality traits, and describes a continuum of experiences of altered mind/body perception, from the prototypical OBE on the healthy end to schizophrenia and organic brain syndromes on the other end. The impact of the OBE on the individual's life is described, with suggestions for a psychoeducational approach to the clinical management of the patient with and OBE to allow maximum growth from the consciouness-expanding effects of the experience., (Web, pdf).

  309. S. W. Twemlow, Book Review: Mindsight: Near-Death and Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind, by Kenneth Ring and Sharon Cooper. Palo Alto, CA: William James Center for Consciousness Studies/Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 1999, 217 pp. + xix, 12.95, pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21 (2002), pp. 43-46.
    (Web, pdf).

  310. S. W. Twemlow and G. O. Gabbard, Discussion of ``The Ketamine Model of the Near-Death Experience: A Central Role for the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor,'' by Earl L. R. Jansen, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1997), pp. 63-69.
    We review strengths and weaknesses of Karl Jansen's approach to the near-death experience (NDE). Strengths include his limited goals and avoidance of the trap of explaining all features of the NDE with his theory, although he surprisingly misunderstood our previously published position. Additionally, we applaud the possible intersection of psychological and biological theories, demonstrated in Jansen's biochemical explanations for the individualized variations in manifestation and adaptive role of the NDE. However, he failed to take into account the pitfalls in the use of analogy, modeling oversimplification, and in taking association as causality and causes as meaningful, in the arguments for his theory., (Web, pdf).

  311. P. Van Lommel, R. van Wees, V. Meyers, and I. Elfferich, Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands, The Lancet, 358 (2001), pp. 2039-2045.
    Background Some people report a near-death experience (NDE) after a life-threatening crisis. We aimed to establish the cause of this experience and assess factors that affected its frequency, depth, and content. Methods In a prospective study, we included 344 consecutive cardiac patients who were successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in ten Dutch hospitals. We compared demographic, medical, pharmacological, and psychological data between patients who reported NDE and patients who did not (controls) after resuscitation. In a longitudinal study of life changes after NDE, we compared the groups 2 and 8 years later. Findings 62 patients (18/) reported NDE, of whom 41 (12%) described a core experience. Occurrence of the experience was not associated with duration of cardiac arrest or unconsciousness, medication, or fear of death before cardiac arrest. Frequency of NDE was affected by how we defined NDE, the prospective nature of the research in older cardiac patients, age, surviving cardiac arrest in first myocardial infarction, more than one cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during stay in hospital, previous NDE, and memory problems after prolonged CPR. Depth of the experience was affected by sex, surviving CPR outside hospital, and fear before cardiac arrest. Significantly more patients who had an NDE, especially a deep experience, died within 30 days of CPR (p<0¡0001). The process of transformation after NDE took several years, and differed from those of patients who survived cardiac arrest without NDE. Interpretation We do not know why so few cardiac patients report NDE after CPR, although age plays a part. With a purely physiological explanation such as cerebral anoxia for the experience, most patients who have been clinically dead should report one., (pdf).

  312. K. R. Vincent and K. Ring, Concerns about Ring and Rosing's omega project, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1991), pp. 259-264.
    (Web, pdf).

  313. J. Wade, Physically Transcendent Awareness: A Comparison of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Before Birth and After Death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 249-275.
    Veridical evidence of a physically transcendent source of consciousness comes from both extremes of the life span when central nervous system functioning is compromised, suggesting that some form of personhood can exist independently of known cellular processes associated with the body. In pre- and perinatal accounts, veridical memories have surfaced of events in the first two trimesters, long before the central nervous system is fully functional, continuing through the third trimester, when measurable brain activity begins, until just after birth. In the empirically verifiable out-of-body phase of near-death experience (NDE) accounts, a source of consciousness has been shown to record events when measurable metabolic processes, including brain activity, have ceased altogether. These two states have similar phenomenologies, suggesting that a physically transcendent source representing individual consciousness predates physical life at the moment of conception and survives it after death, and that its maturity and functioning do not directly reflect the level of central nervous system functioning in the body., (Web, pdf).

  314. J. Wade, Physically transcendent awareness: A comparison of the phenomenology of consciousness before birth and after death, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 249-275.
    Veridical evidence of a physically transcendent source of consciousness comes from both extremes of the life span when central nervous system functioningis compromised,suggesting that some form ofpersonhood can exist independently of known cellular processes associated with the body. In pre- and perinatal accounts, veridical memories have surfaced of events in the first two trimesters, long before the central nervous system is fully functional, continuing through the third trimester, when measurable brain activity begins, until just after birth. In the empirically verifiable out-of-body phase of near-death experience (NDE) accounts, a source of consciousness has been shown to record events when measurable metabolic processes, including brain activity, have ceased altogether. These two states have similar phenomenologies, suggesting that a physically transcendent source representing individual consciousness predates physical life at the moment of conception and survives it after death, and that its maturity and functioning do not directly reflect the level of central nervous system functioning in the body., (pdf).

  315. J. Wade, The Phenomenology of Near-Death Consciousness in Past-Life Regression Therapy: A Pilot Study, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1998), pp. 31-53.
    Although past-life regression therapy has not been shown to be the re-experiencing of a verifiable previous biological existence, therapists have noted similarities between the phenomenology of post-death awareness reported by regressed subjects and the phenomenology of near-death experiences (NDEs). This paper reports the results of a pilot study exploring those similarities as far as the therapeutic modality normally accommodates post-death phenomena. Similarities and differences between NDEs and post-death regression phenomena suggest new avenues of research., (Web, pdf).

  316. J. Wade, Book Review The Eternal Journey: How Near-Death Experiences Illuminate our Earthly Lives, by Craig R. Lundahl and Harold A. Widdison. New York, NY: Warner, 1997, 294 + xxvi pp, 24.00, hb., Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 51-57.
    (Web, pdf).

  317. J. Wade, Book Review The Journey Home: What Near-Death Experiences and Mysticism Teach Us about the Gift of Life, by Phillip L. Berman. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1996, 207pp + xiv, 14.00 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 18 (1999), pp. 133-138.
    (Web, pdf).

  318. J. Wade, BOOK REVIEW The Near-Death Experience: A Reader, edited by Lee W. Bailey and Jenny Yates. New York, NY: Routledge, 1996, 409pp. + x, 24.95 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17 (1999), pp. 211-214.
    (Web, pdf).

  319. J. Wade, Letter to the Editor: Religious Wars in the NDE Movement, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 191-192.
    (Web, pdf).

  320. N. J. Wade, Beyond body experiences: Phantom limbs, pain and the locus of sensation, Cortex, 45 (2009), pp. 243-255.
    Reports of perceptual experiences are found throughout history. However, the phenomena considered worthy of note have not been those that nurture our survival (the veridical features of perception) but the oddities or departures from the common and commonplace accuracies of perception. Some oddities (like afterimages) could be experienced by everyone, whereas others were idiosyncratic. Such phenomena were often given a paranormal interpretation before they were absorbed into the normal science of the day. This sequence is examined historically in the context of beyond body experiences or phantom limbs. The experience of sensations in lost body parts provides an example of the ways in which novel phenomena can be interpreted. The first phase of description probably occurred in medieval texts and was often associated with accounts of miraculous reconnection. Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) initiated medical interest in this intriguing aspect of perception, partly because more of his patients survived the trauma of surgery. Description is followed by attempts to incorporate the phenomenon into the body of extant theory. René Descartes (1596-1650) integrated sensations in amputated limbs into his dualist theory of mind, and used the phenomenon to support the unity of the mind in comparison to the fragmented nature of bodily sensations. Others, like William Porterfield (ca. 1696-1771), did not consider the phenomenon as illusory and interpreted it in terms of other projective features of perception. Finally, the phenomenon is accepted and utilized to gain more insights into the functioning of the senses and the brain. The principal features of phantom limbs were well known before they were given that name in the 19th century. Despite the puzzles they still pose, these phantoms continue to provide perception with some potent concepts: the association with theories of pain has loosened the link with peripheral stimulation and emphasis on the phenomenal dimension has slackened the grip of stimulus-based theories of perception. The pattern of development in theories of phantom limbs might provide a model for examining out-of-body experiences (OBEs)., (Web, pdf).

  321. B. A. Walker and R. D. Russell, Assessing psychologists' knowledge and attitudes toward near-death phenomena, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1989), pp. 103-110.
    Nina Thornburg's (1988) Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire was distributed to 326 randomly selected Illinois psychologists. Of 117 usable questionnaires received, the mean score for knowledge questions was 7.5 of a maximum score of 18. Respondents were most knowledgeable about near-death elements of peace, out-of-body transcendence, and tunnel/light phenomena. The mean score for the attitude portion of the instrument was 61.3 of a maximum score of 85 points for the most positive attitude. Seven percent of the respondents indicated having had a near-death experience, 19/ indicated having counseling near-death experiencers, and 28% indicated having had personal contacts with an experiencer., (Web, pdf).

  322. B. A. Walker and W. J. Serdahely, Historical perspectives on near-death phenomena, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 9 (1990), pp. 105-121.
    The authors present an introductory overview of the history of near-death phenomena, followed by a synopsis of near-death research representative of three historical eras: 1880s-1930; 1930s-1960; and 1960 to the present., (Web, pdf).

  323. E. H. Walker, Comments on ``Electromagnetic radiation and the afterlife'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 105-108.
    (Web, pdf).

  324. P. S. Weibust, ``Being one with god is something that can be done without rules'': Commentary on Allan Kellehear's ``Near-death experiences and the pursuit of the ideal society'', Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10 (1991), pp. 107-111.
    Allan Kellehear's article is a pioneering venture exploring features of the transcendent society and comparing it with J.C. Davis's typology of ideal societies. Kellehear assumed that in the life after life there is a sociocultural ordering that can be discussed via structural functional theory and concepts; and he also assumed internal and external validity, despite evidence to the contrary in his article. I think both of these assumptions are incorrect. What we need are alternative sociocultural frameworks and alternative research strategies, possibly from the ``new science''., (Web, pdf).

  325. G. E. Wettach, The near death experience as a product of isolated subcortical brain function, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2000), pp. 71-90.
    This paper attempts to show that the sequence of a typical near death experience (NDE) is predictable and reproducible, enough to suggest that the NDE is a symptom of a specific altered mental state seen in a large number of medical and surgical conditions. I attempt to explain on an anatomical, physiologic, and psychological basis how NDEs might be caused, and suggest that NDEs might even be the basis of religion. I also describe an NDE of a 38-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic who developed hypoglycemia secondary to a lack of caloric intake to support her daily insulin usage. She did not appear to be life-threatened from a cardiovascular standpoint. During the hypoglycemic spell, the patient appeared to be in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following resuscitation with an intravenous injection of dextrose, the patient returned to a normal mental status, but recounted a typical NDE., (pdf).

  326. J. White, Guest editorial: Consciousness and substance: The primal forms of God, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1987), pp. 73-78.
    (Web, pdf).

  327. J. White, Near-death experiences andHomo noeticus, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 191-193.
    (Web, pdf).

  328. R. A. White, The Amplification and Integration of Near-Death and Other Exceptional Human Experiences by the Larger Cultural Context: An Autobiographical Case, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16 (1998), pp. 181-204.
    Although I became a parapsychologist in part to help me understand the near-death experience (NDE) I had in 1952 as an undergraduate, it was not until 1990 that I began to integrate my NDE into my life. Doing so alerted me to the role the larger cultural context plays in regard to NDEs and other exceptional human experiences (EHEs). I propose not only that we need to draw on cultural resources to amplify the meaning of our exceptional human experiences, but that EHEs themselves carry the seeds of cultural change., (Web, pdf).

  329. B. H. Whitfield, More on Psychomanteum Experimentation, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 203-204.
    (Web, pdf).

  330. H. A. Widdison, Book Review: Children of the New Millennium: Children's Near-Death Experiences and the Evolution of Humankind, by P.M.H. Atwater. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 1999, 288 pp, 14.00 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 257-268.
    (Web, pdf).

  331. H. A. Widdison, Book Review: Experiences Near Death: Beyond Medicine and Religion, by Allan Kellehear. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996, 230 pp., 25.00 hb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (2001), pp. 119-128.
    (Web, pdf).

  332. H. A. Widdison and C. R. Lundahl, The physical environment in the City of Light, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1993), pp. 239-246.
    The article describes the physical environment found in the other world or the City of Light, based on published accounts of near-death experiences (NDEs). The City of Light appears to be a world of preternatural beauty that cannot be described adequately. NDE accounts provide descriptions of the landscape, animal life, plant life, and architecture found in the other world., (Web, pdf).

  333. L. K. Wilkins, T. A. Girard, and J. A. Cheyne, Ketamine as a primary predictor of out-of-body experiences associated with multiple substance use, Consciousness and Cognition, (2011), pp. 1-8.
    Investigation of ``out-of-body experiences'' (OBEs) has implications for understanding both normal bodily-self integration and its vulnerabilities. Beyond reported associations between OBEs and specific brain regions, however, there have been few investigations of neurochemical systems relevant to OBEs. Ketamine, a drug used recreationally to achieve dissociative experiences, provides a real-world paradigm for investigating neurochemical effects. We investigate the strength of the association of OBEs and ketamine use relative to other common drugs of abuse. Self-report data (N = 192) from an online survey indicate that both lifetime frequency of ketamine use and OBEs during ketamine intoxication were more strongly related to the frequency of OBEs and related phenomena than other drugs. Moreover, the apparent effects of other drugs could largely be explained by associated ketamine use. The present results, consistent with the role of NMDA receptors in OBEs, should encourage future studies of the role of neurochemical systems in OBEs., (Web, pdf).

  334. C. Wills-Brandon, Letter to the Editor: More on Psychomanteum Experimentation, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 183-185.
    (Web, pdf).

  335. K. D. Wood, Response to G.M. Woerlee's Critique of Dr. Long's Research, Homepage publication, (2010), pp. 1-12.
    After reading Dr. Woerlee's critique of Dr. Jeffery Long's NDE research, Review of Evidence of the Afterlife, I was rather frustrated at what I felt was a sloppy effort on Dr. Woerlee's part. I think it is very important that we hold those who make claims and those who rebut claims to the same level of scientific scrutiny. Therefore, in the spirit of science, I offer this paper as a response to Dr. Woerlee's critique. This document is formatted to follow the same sectional outline that Dr. Woerlee used in his critique of Dr. Long., (Web, pdf).

  336. J. Wren-Lewis, Avoiding the columbus confusion: An Ockhamish view of near-death research, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 75-81.
    The positive aftereffects of near-death experiences (NDEs) are sometimes regarded as due to the possibility that they may be ``visions of the beyond.'' But that notion could be a serious misconception, similar to what I call the ``Columbus Confusion.'' Five hundred years ago, Christopher Columbus's belief that he had found a new route to India prevented him from realizing that he had discovered a new continent. Likewise, contemporary belief that NDEs are glimpses of an afterlife may prevent us from realizing their more profound nature. Belief in an afterlife has not historically brought humanity a high quality of life, but NDEs seem reliably to do so, and may offer important clues about why the expanded vitality, the ``eternity-consciousness,'' of the mystics is commonly blocked. Those clues are obscured by popular emphasis on that minority of NDEs that resemble otherworld journeys., (Web, pdf).

  337. J. Wren-Lewis, Book Review: The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead, by Frank J. Tipler. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1994, 39.95 hb; New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1995, 528 pp + xxvi, 14.95 pb, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 19 (2001), pp. 241-246.
    (Web, pdf).

  338. R. Yensen, Helping at the edges of life: Perspectives of a psychedelic therapist, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 149-161.
    A case history is presented of a 70 year old man treated with psychedelic psychotherapy for depression, anxiety, and pain associated with terminal cancer. Interpersonal and intrapersonal aspects of treatment following a single 90 mg dose of dipropyltryptamine (DPT) are described. Comparisons are made between transpersonal, mystical, and religious elements in psychedelic drug experiences and near-death experiences., (Web, pdf).

  339. A. M. Young, Guest editorial science, spirit, and the soul, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6 (1988), pp. 206-222.
    (Web, pdf).

  340. C. Zaleski, Response to ``The luminous experience and the scientific method'' by Oliver Nichelson, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8 (1990), pp. 207-209.
    Acknowledging the cultural shaping of near-death experiences makes possible a deeper and more sophisticated appreciation of their meaning and validity., (Web, pdf).

  341. F. Zhi-ying and L. Jian-xun, Near-death experiences among survivors of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11 (1992), pp. 39-48.
    We interviewed 81 survivors of the severe earthquake in Tangshan in 1976 and found that 32 (40 percent) reported near-death experiences (NDEs) as measured by Greyson's (1983) NDE Scale. The great majority of these NDEs were of the cognitive and transcendental types, and our observations were somewhat different from those of Greyson (1985) in the United States and of Pasricha and Stevenson (1986) in India. These differences suggest that the components, sequences, and types of NDE might differ with race, religion, psychological and cultural background, and kind of near-death event., (Web, pdf).

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